Endnotes Vol. 1, Second Edition, The Kiss of Judice (Completed)

Note: With the later footnotes, the reader will see that the background is in almost illegible red and the hyperlinks don’t appear unless one places the cursor over the spot where the hyperlink would appear. Sorry. We will see if that can be corrected.

[1] Shakespeare, Aufidius, in Coriolanus, act 5, sc. 6, l. 94-5 @ Shakespeare, William. “Coriolanus.” Great Literature Online (1997-2010)
<http://shakespeare.classicauthors.net/Coriolanus/Coriolanus30.html>.

2 5 U.S.C. §3331 @ http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/5/3331.html.

3 Smithsonian Magazine, May 1999, “The Bird Did Its Part”.

4 Act of June 16, 1933, c. 90, 48 Stat. 195, 196; 15 U.S.C. §703. The U.S. Code citations that follow through endnote 12 are taken from A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States, 295 U.S. 495 (1935) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/295/495.html.

5 15 U.S.C. §703(a). One wonders how these codes could possibly have been consistent with then-existing anti-trust laws.

6 15 U.S.C. §703(d).

7 15 U.S.C. §703(f).

8 Smithsonian Magazine, May 1999, “The Bird Did Its Part”.

9 A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States, 295 U.S. 495 (1935) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/295/495.html.

10 Act of June 16, 1933, c. 90, 48 Stat. 195, 196; 15 U.S.C. §703.

11 15 U.S.C. §703(d).

12 15 U.S.C. §703(f).

13 Executive order no. 6675-A, April 13, 1934. See Schechter, 295 U.S. at 521-22 @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/295/495.html.

14 http://newdeal.feri.org/court /005.htm.

15 Full statement: “Is the United States going to decide, are the people of this country going to decide that their Federal Government shall in the future have no right under any implied power or any court-approved power to enter into a solution of a national economic problem, but that that national economic problem must be decided only by the States?… We thought we were solving it, and now it has been thrown right straight in our faces. We have been relegated to the horse-and-buggy definition of interstate commerce.” President Franklin D. Roosevelt, remarks at press conference, May 31, 1935. The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt (1935) pp. 215, 221 (1938). Monday, May 27, 1935, became known as “Black Monday.” One of the decisions the Supreme Court handed down that day was the case of Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States, to which Roosevelt refers. From Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations, Washington D.C., Library of Congress (1989) @ http://www.bartleby.com/73/1763.html.

16 http://newdeal.feri.org/court /004.htm

17 The name given to Justices Sutherland, Van Devanter, Butler, and McReynolds who generally opposed FDR’s schemes.

18 Hall, Kermit et al, Editors, The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States, 2nd Ed., Oxford University Press (2005), pp. 233-34 (“Oxford Companion”).

19 Oxford Companion at 233.

20 29 U.S.C. 151 et al.

21 N.L.R.B. v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp.,  301 U.S. 1 (1937) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/301/1.html.

22 See Oxford Companion at 454. The “switch in time” joke actually related to Roberts’s switch in West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish, 300 U.S. 379 (1937) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/300/379.html decided a few days before Jones & Laughlin. There the court upheld 5-4 the constitutionality of Washington State’s minimum wage law with Roberts joining the majority.

23 http://www.nisk.k12.ny.us/fdr/1937/37_scgifs/large/37051504.gif.

24 N.L.R.B. v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp., 301 U.S. 1 (1937); http://laws.findlaw.com/us/301/1.html (sustaining constitutionality of National Labor Relations Act). See Oxford Companion at 664-65.

25 “Cause of death”.

26 There is a good argument that United States v. Butler, 297 U.S. 1 (1936) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/297/1.html, even though it went against FDR, was the causa mortis.

27 Author unknown.

28 317 U.S. 111 (1942) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/317/111.html.

29 Bolt, Robert, A Man for All Seasons @ http://www.iwise.com/TBG1H#.

30 Classic translation of the Hippocratic Oath into English:

“I swear by Apollo the Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods, and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfill according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant:

To hold him who has taught me this art as equal to my parents and to live my life in partnership with him, and if he is in need of money to give him a share of mine, and to regard his offspring as equal to my brothers in male lineage and to teach them this art–if they desire to learn it–without fee and covenant; to give a share of precepts and oral instruction and all the other learning to my sons and to the sons of him who has instructed me and to pupils who have signed the covenant and have taken the oath according to medical law, but to no one else.

I will apply dietic measures for the benefit of the sick according to my ability and judgment; I will keep them from harm and injustice.

I will neither give a deadly drug to anybody if asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect. Similarly I will not give to a woman an abortive remedy. In purity and holiness I will guard my life and my art.

I will not use the knife, not even on sufferers from stone, but will withdraw in favor of such men as are engaged in this work.

Whatever houses I may visit, I will come for the benefit of the sick, remaining free of all intentional injustice, of all mischief and in particular of sexual relations with both female and male persons, be they free or slaves.

What I may see or hear in the course of treatment or even outside of the treatment in regard to the life of men, which on no account one must spread abroad, I will keep myself holding such things shameful to be spoken about.

If I fulfill this oath and do not violate it, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and art, being honoured with fame among all men for all time to come; if I transgress it and swear falsely, may the opposite of all this be my lot.”

In the 1870s, many American medical schools chose to abandon the Hippocratic Oath as part of graduation ceremonies, usually substituting a version modified to something considered more politically and medically correct, or an alternate pledge like the Oath of Maimonides. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocratic_Oath.

See http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/doctors/oath _modern.html.

31 http://www.quotedb.com/quotes/2158.

32 http://www.sobran.com/articles/tyranny.shtml.

33 31 Jer. 29-30. Douay-Rheims Bible, Tan Books and Publishers, Inc., Rockford, IL. (2000) @ http://www.newadvent.org/bible/jer031.htm: “29 The fathers have eaten a sour grape, and the teeth of the children are set on edge. 30 But every one shall die for his own iniquity: every man that shall eat the sour grape, his teeth shall be set on edge.”

34 Publication information: http://www.sobran.com/books.shtml.

35 Inaugural Address, March 4, 1933, quoted in Mencken, H.L., A New Dictionary of Quotations, New York, Alfred A. Knopf (1985), p. 215. In 1930, Roosevelt had said, “The United States Constitution has proved itself the most marvelously elastic compilation of rules of government ever written.” Id.

36 Home Bldg. & L. Assn. v. Blaisdell, 290 U.S. 398, 483 (1934) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/290/398.html.

W. B. Yeats (1865–1939) “The Second Coming”, lines 1–8, The Variorum Edition of the Poems of W. B. Yeats, ed. Peter Allt and Russell K. Alspach, pp. 401–2 (1957). Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations, Washington D.C., Library of Congress (1989) @ http://www.bartleby.com/73/454.html.

37 Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137, 178 (1803) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/5/137.html.

38 Those rulings came despite the fact that neither the court nor the federal government had any jurisdiction over either subject, for what the states elect to do with obscenity or prayer in schools is not a matter of federal constitutional law and none of the court’s business.

39 410 U.S. 113 (1973) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/410/113.html.

40 Bolt, Robert, A Man for all Seasons, @ http://www.quotationsbook.com/quote/45245/.

41 See National Socialist Party v. Skokie, 432 U.S. 43 (1977) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/432/43.html.

42 James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay, The Federalist Papers (“Federalist”), Encyclopædia Britannica (Great Books of the Western World) (“GBWW”), University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. (1980), No. 79 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa79.htm.

43 “A Former Justice Warns: Return to Law, or Face Anarchy ”, U.S. News & World Report, April 25, 1966, p. 60, quoted in Gerhart, Eugene C., Quote It! Memorable Legal Quotations, Reprint Edition, William S. Hein & Co., Buffalo, NY, (1987), pp. 523-24.

44 410 U.S. 113 (1973) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/410/113.html.

45 Stenberg v. Carhart, 530 U.S. 914 (2000) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/530/914.html; but see Gonzales v. Carhart, 550 U.S. 124 (2007) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/000/05-380.html (narrowing Stenberg).

46 Brown v. Allen, 344 U.S. 443, 535 (1953) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/344/443.html.

47 State v. Janssen, 213 Wis.2nd 431 @ http://www.wisbar.org/res/capp/z1997/97-1316.htm. In its unanimous opinion throwing out the defendant’s flag desecration charge, the court described the facts: “The facts giving rise to the flag desecration charge are substantially undisputed. Matthew Janssen and a group of his friends began stealing American flags from various locations in the City of Appleton. One of the flags stolen was from the flag pole located at the Reid Municipal Golf Course. The golf course flag was replaced, and again removed by Janssen and his friends. Janssen then defecated on the flag, and placed it at the front entry of the clubhouse. The soiled flag was cleaned and once more displayed on the golf course flag pole. Again Janssen stole the flag, this time leaving behind a handwritten note. The note was inscribed with an encircled “A” in the upper-right-hand corner, and read as follows:

Golf Course Rich F__ks: When are you dumb f__ks going to learn? We stole you’re [sic] first flag and burnt [sic] it, then we used your second flag for a sh__-rag and left it on your doorstep with a peice [sic] of sh__. The ANARCHIST PLATOON HAS INVADED Appleton and as long as you put flags up were [sic] going to burn them you yuppie f__ks. Shove you’re [sic] cluB [sic] up you’re [sic] a__.” * * *

Janssen was charged with flag desecration under “§946.05 Flag desecration. (1) Whoever intentionally and publicly mutilates, defiles, or casts contempt upon the flag is guilty of a Class E felony. (2) In this section ‘flag’ means anything which is or purports to be the Stars and Stripes, the United States shield, the United States coat of arms, the Wisconsin state flag, or a copy, picture, or representation of any of them.

The Wisconsin Court of Appeals based its decision on the grounds that the flag desecration statute, was unconstitutionally “overbroad”.

48 Prosser v. Leuck, 225 Wis. 2d 126, 592 N.W.2d 178 (1995); petition for review denied. http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=9065151513146540507&hl=en&as_sdt=2&as_vis=1&oi=scholarr.

49 Wisconsin Department of Revenue v. Hogan 198 Wis. 2d 792 (1995) (Wis. Court of Appeals) @ http://www.wicourts.gov/ca/opinions/95/pdf/95-0438.pdf.

50 See http://www.wisbar.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=State_Bar_dues_and_Supreme_Court_assessments.

51 Mason, Alpheus Thomas, Harlan Fiske Stone: Pillar of the Law, The Viking Press, New York, N.Y. (1956), p. 377, cited at Quote it completely!: world reference guide to more than 5,500…- Google Books Result, p.78.

52 Scott, Walter, Guy Mannering, E.P. Dutton & Co., New York, N.Y. (1906), p. 259, cited at Quote it completely!: world reference guide to more than 5,500…- Google Books Result, p. 635.

53 Story, Joseph, Letter to S.P.P. Fay, September 6, 1798, Story, William W., Ed., Life and Letters of Joseph Story, Charles C. Little & James Brown, Boston, Mass. (1852), p. 71, from Quote it completely!, cited at http://books.google.com/books?id=kjwVASsTUm0C&dq=%22Letter+to+S.P.P.+Fay%22&source=gbs_navlinks_s, p. 591.

54 Review of W.S. Holdsworth’s A History of English Law, 25 L.Q.R. 412 (1909), from Quote it completely! cited at http://books.google.com/books?id=kjwVASsTUm0C&dq=a+rag-bag+from+which+they+pick&source=gbs_navlinks_s, p. 571.

55 St. John, Henry, in Letter No. 6 of “Letters on the Study and Use of History”, in The Works of Lord Bolingbroke, Carey and Hart, Philadelphia, Pa. (1841), Vol. II, pp. 234-35, cited at Quote it completely!: world reference guide to more than 5,500…- Google Books Result, p. 635

56 In Defense of the Constitution, Liberty Fund, Indianapolis, Ind. (1995), p. 6 @ http://files.libertyfund.org/files/678/Carey _0008_EBk_v5.pdf, p. 9.

57 WestLaw is computerized legal research.

58 Gangi, William, “The Sixth Amendment, Judicial Power, and the People’s Right to Govern Themselves”, The Bill of Rights, Original Meaning and Current Understanding, Hickok, Eugene W. Jr., University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. (1991), p. 371.

59 Connolly, Cyril, The Portable Curmudgeon, Winokur, Jon, Ed., New American Library, New York, N.Y. (1987), p. 67.

60 “Anything Called a Program”, publication information: http://www.sobran.com/books.shtml.

61 As phrased by Hayek, Friedrich, The Constitution of Liberty, University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1978) p. 22.

62 Kentucky Resolutions, Bergh 17:388 (1798) @ http://www.constitution.org/rf/kr_1798.htm.

63 Federalist 45 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa84.htm.

64 The Bill of Rights, Original Meaning and Current Understanding, Hickok, Eugene W. Jr., Ed., University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville and London (1991), p.11.

65 Gladstone, “Kin Beyond the Sea”; from the North American Review, September 1878 cited at Quote it completely!: world reference guide to more than 5,500…- Google Books Result, p. 193.

66The Wisdom of Winston Churchill, edited by F.B. Czarnomski, London, George Allen and Unwin Ltd. (1956), p.176, cited at Quote it completely!: world reference guide to more than 5,500…- Google Books Result, p. 191.

67 Kipling, “The Last Chantey” @  www.kipling.org.uk/kiplingsociety/poems_chantey.htm.

68 Attributed to Southey, Robert, from Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) @ http://dict.die.net/nonplus/.

69 http://www.bartleby.com/110/645.html.

70 Pennington v. Coxe, 6 U.S. (2 Cranch) 33, 53 (1804) @ http://supreme.justia.com/us/6/33/case.html.

71 Gibbons v. Ogden, 22 U.S. (9 Wheat) 1, 188 (1824) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/22/1.html.

72 A Familiar Exposition of the Constitution of the United States (“Familiar Exposition”), Regnery Gateway, Washington, D.C. (1986), Forward @ American Freedom Library, electronic version (1996) Western Standard Publishing Company (“AFL”).

73In limine”: “on or at the threshold; at the very beginning”, Black’s Law Dictionary (“BLD”) 5th Ed. at 708.

74 Government by Judiciary, The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., (1977) 1st Ed. pp. 296-97 @ http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=675&Itemid=99999999. (2nd Ed.) Justice Gibson’s statement is found in Eakin v. Raub, 12 S. & R. 330 (Pa. 1825) http://www.enotes.com/american-court-cases/eakin-v-raub.

75 BLD at 254.

76 Swift, Jonathan, “A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms”, pt. 4, ch. 5, Gulliver’s Travels (1726) @ http://books.google.com/books?id=n8oVAAAAYAAJ&dq=%22a+maxim+among+lawyers %22+Swift&source=gbs_navlinks_ at p. 200.

77 William Shakespeare (1564–1616). The Tragedy of Hamlet Prince of Denmark, The Harvard Classics, 1909–14, Act I, Scene II @ http://www.bartleby.com/46/2/12.html.

78 5 U.S. (I Cranch) 137, 176 @ supreme.justia.com/us/5/137/case.html.

79 U.S. Const., Art. 6, §2: “This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

80 Examples abound of the “majestic generalities” ploy. One is Abington School Dist. v. Schempp, 374 U.S. 203 (1963) @ http://supreme.justia.com/us/374/203/case.html, where the U.S. Supreme Court held:

“Because of the prohibition of the First Amendment against the enactment by Congress of any law ‘respecting an establishment of religion,’ which is made applicable to the States by the Fourteenth Amendment, no state law or school board may require that passages from the Bible be read or that the Lord’s Prayer be recited in the public schools of a State at the beginning of each school day- even if individual students may be excused from attending or participating in such exercises upon written request of their parents.” [Case headnote.]

Mr. Justice Brennan, concurring, wrote: “In sum—the history which our prior decisions have summoned to aid interpretation of the Establishment Clause permits little doubt that its prohibition was designed comprehensively to prevent those official involvements of religion which would tend to foster or discourage religious worship or belief.” Id. at 234. So far so good. But after that admission, he quickly moves on to his “but” clause:

“But an awareness of history and an appreciation of the aims of the Founding Fathers do not always resolve concrete problems. The specific question before us has, for example, aroused vigorous dispute whether the architects of the First Amendment—James Madison and Thomas Jefferson particularly—understood the prohibition against any ‘law respecting an establishment of [374 U.S. 235] religion’ to reach devotional exercises in the public schools. It may be that Jefferson and Madison would have held such exercises to be permissible—although even in Jefferson’s case serious doubt is suggested by his admonition against ‘putting the Bible and Testament into the hands of the children at an age when their judgments are not sufficiently matured for religious inquiries….’ But [374 U.S. 236] I doubt that their view, even if perfectly clear one way or the other, would supply a dispositive answer to the question presented by these cases. A more fruitful inquiry, it seems to me, is whether the practices here challenged threaten those consequences which the Framers deeply feared; whether, in short, they tend to promote that type of interdependence between religion and state which the First Amendment was designed to prevent. Our task is to translate “the majestic generalities of the Bill of Rights, conceived as part of the pattern of liberal government in the eighteenth century, into concrete restraints on officials [374 U.S. 237] dealing with the problems of the twentieth century….” [fns. omitted] Citing West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624, 639 @ http://supreme.justia.com/us/319/624/case.html.

81 Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway Company v. May, 194 U.S. 267, 270 (1904), http://supreme.justia.com/us/194/267/case.html, quote found at Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations (1989) @ http://www.bartleby.com/73/1037.html.

82 The Supreme Court in United States History, Vol. 2, chapter 38, pp.748–49 (1932) @ http://www.bartleby.com/73/338.html.

83 “Anything Called a Program” @ http://www.sobran.com/books.shtml.

84 Cohens v. Virginia, 19 U.S. 264 (1821) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/19/264.html.

85Memoir, correspondence and miscellanies from the papers of Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson Randolph, Gray and Bowen (1830), Volume 4, pp. 373-374 @ http://books.google.com/books?id=jUc6AAAAcAAJ&dq=%22I+ask+for+no+straining+of+words+%22&source=gbs_navlinks_s.

86 Alger Hiss, yes. Opus Dei, just kidding.

87 The principle is similar to “in pari materia”, meaning “Upon the same matter or subject.” BLD at 711.

88 See GBWW (1980), Vol. 43, p. 23.

89 Ketcham, Ralph, James Madison:, A Biography, University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville and London, Paper Ed. (1990), p. 249.

90 Cohens v. Virginia, 19 U.S. 264, 418 (1821) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/19/264.html.

91 BLD at 1052.

92 Bergh 13:327 (1813), The Real Thomas Jefferson (“Real Jefferson”), p.560 @ AFL.

93 One dissenter who did was Gov. Edmund Randolph of Virginia, but he later changed his mind and signed the Constitution. Encarta (2004) “Randolph, Edmund Jennings” © Microsoft Corporation. See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Randolph.

94 Berger, Raoul, Federalism: The Founder’s Design (“Federalism”), University of Oklahoma Press, Norman and London (1987), pp.151-52.

95 In 1791, as a congressman, Madison opposed the national bank, but signed a rechartering bill late in his 2nd presidential term. Encarta (2004) “Madison, James” © Microsoft Corporation. His 1791 speech opposing is found http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=875&chapter=63865&layout=html&Itemid=27. See also Jefferson’s “Opinion on the Constitutionality of the Bill for Establishing a National Bank ” @ http://www.constitution.org/mon/tj-bank.htm.

96 Sutherland, Statutory Construction, 4th Ed., Callaghan & Company, Wilmette, Ill. (1984) Vol. 2A, §45.12.

97 Cooper v. Aaron, 358 U.S. 1 (1958) @ http://supreme.justia.com/us/358/1/case.html: “Article VI of the Constitution makes the Constitution the ‘supreme Law of the Land.’ In 1803, Chief Justice Marshall, speaking for a unanimous Court, referring to the Constitution as ‘the fundamental and paramount law of the nation,’ declared in the notable case of Marbury v. Madison, 1 Cranch 137, 177 @ http://supreme.justia.com/us/5/137/case.html that ‘It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is.’ This decision declared the basic principle that the federal judiciary is supreme in the exposition of the law of the Constitution, and that principle has ever since been respected by this Court and the Country as a permanent and indispensable feature of our constitutional system. It follows that the interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment enunciated by this Court in the Brown case is the supreme law of the land, and Art. VI of the Constitution makes it of binding effect on the States “any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.” Id. at 18.

On the series “Uncommon Knowledge”, Episode 822, “The High (and Mighty) Court”, Filmed on October 27, 2003, this exchange took place between host (Robinson) and guest, Robert George, McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence and Director of the James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions, Princeton University:

Peter Robinson: And here’s what it comes down to–this one sentence from Chief Justice John Marshall–”It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is.” Robert, why doesn’t that settle it?

Robert George: Well, it doesn’t settle it because the Supreme Court is simply, in the 1958 case of Cooper, relying on that sentence to mean that the Supreme Court gets the final word every time a case comes before it on matters of constitutional interpretation. And Marbury simply won’t bear that broad or sweeping an interpretation of judicial power. Marbury could stand for something much, much narrower. It could simply stand for the proposition that the Supreme Court is a co-equal, co-sovereign branch of government, has the right to determine for itself how it will act in its own affairs, whether, for example, it will exercise jurisdiction it believes has wrongly been conferred on it by the Congress, wrongly in the sense of unconstitutionally been conferred. Perhaps all that Chief Justice Marshall was saying in the Marbury case was that as we interpret the Constitution, we’re not entitled to exercise this jurisdiction. Therefore, we won’t exercise it. That’s entirely compatible with allowing the Congress in its own sphere or the President in his own sphere, to make their own constitutional judgments. http://www.hoover.org/multimedia/uncommon-knowledge/27015.

George’s view is supported by Abraham Lincoln in his first inaugural address: “I do not forget the position assumed by some that constitutional questions are to be decided by the Supreme Court, nor do I deny that such decisions must be binding in any case upon the parties to a suit as to the object of that suit. At the same time, the candid citizen must confess that if the policy of the government is to be irrevocably fixed by decisions of the Supreme Court, the people will have ceased to be their own rulers, having to that extent practically resigned their government into the hands of that eminent tribunal.” Id.

Lincoln wasn’t alone in his view: he was echoing Thomas Jefferson: “[T]he opinion which gives to the judges the right to decide what laws are constitutional… not only for themselves in their own sphere of action, but for the legislature and the executive also, in their spheres, would make the judiciary a despotic branch.” TJ to Mrs. Abigail Adams (11 Sept. 1804) @  http:/etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1030.htm.

The judicial presumptuousness lives on yet. In “How the Court Became Supreme”, First Things (January 1999), 13–19, Robert Lowry Clinton wrote:

Finally, the twentieth–century American judiciary has become a ‘secular priesthood’ to which Americans increasingly look for solutions to the collective moral and spiritual dilemmas into which we have been propelled by our failure to face difficult constitutional problems directly and resolve them in the political arena. The ‘joint opinion’ of Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) demonstrated the extent to which the Supreme Court has been captivated by this image of itself. In a statement fraught with irony, the Casey Court declared:

“Like the character of an individual, the legitimacy of the Court must be earned over time. So, indeed, must be the character of a nation of people who aspire to live according to the rule of law. Their belief in themselves as such a people is not readily separable from their understanding of the Court invested with the authority to decide their constitutional cases and speak before all others for their constitutional ideals. If the Court’s legitimacy should be undermined, then, so would the country be in its very ability to see itself through its constitutional ideals.” http://www.leaderu.com/ftissues/ft9901/articles/clinton.html.

98 Per the rule of res judicata, a court decision is binding only on the parties to the case or their privies. See BLD at 1174. “Privies” are “those who are partakers or have an interest in any action or thing, or any relation to another.” “Privies” are of six kinds, none of which includes the general public. See BLD at 1077

99 These works employ the so-called “casebook method” of teaching law—a method that has led to mass ignorance of law among lawyers. If the statute of limitations had not long expired, I could perhaps rightly sue my own law school, the University of Arizona, for malpractice.

100 Goldsmith, Oliver, The Haunch of Venison @ http://www.bartleby.com/100/273.52.html.

101 Shaw, Bernard @ http://www.bartleby.com/110/645.html.

102 Little, Brown Book of Anecdotes, Fadiman, Clifton, General Ed., Little, Brown and Company, Boston (1985), p. 378.

103 Source unverifiable; but see http://www.anecdotage.com/index.php?aid=5243

104 “Remarks in the Federal Convention on the Power to Negative State Laws”, June 8, 1787, James Madison, Writings, The Library of America: Literary Classics of the United States (1999), Rakove, Jack N., Editor, pp. 99-100.

105 Letter to Nicholas P. Trist, December 23, 1832, Writings of Madison, Vol. 4 (1829-1836), pp. 228-229 @ AFL.

106 Taylor, John of Caroline, New Views of the Constitution of the United States (“New Views”), Regnery Publishing, Inc., Washington, D.C. (2000), McClellan, James, Editor, Introduction, pp. xxiv. Another version of the work may be found @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

107 Ketcham, Ralph, James Madison, A Biography, University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville and London: Paper Ed (1990), p. 447.

108 The Constitution of the United States, Analysis and Interpretation, Library of Congress, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington (1987), pp.949-950.

109 So reported Walter Berns, in Commentary Magazine, November 1995, p. 31 @ AFL.

110 Commentaries on the Constitution of The United States (“St. Commentaries”), Boston, Hilliard, Gray and Company, Cambridge, Brown, Shattuck, and Co. (1833) @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_000.htm.

111Familiar Exposition”, Regnery Gateway, Washington, D.C. (1986) p. 9 @ AFL.

112 Stone, Geoffrey et al, Constitutional Law, Little Brown & Co., Boston, Toronto, London (1991) 2nd Ed., p. lxxi.

113 Id.

114 Id.

115 In almost all cases, we will cite to: Blackstone’s Commentaries: With Notes Of Reference, To The Constitution And Laws, Of The Federal Government Of The United States; And Of The Commonwealth Of Virginia. In Five Volumes. With An Appendix To Each Volume, Containing Short Tracts Upon Such Subjects As Appeared Necessary To Form A Connected View Of The Laws Of Virginia, As A Member Of The Federal Union. By St. George Tucker, Professor Of Law, In The University Of William And Mary, And One Of The Judges Of The General Court In Virginia. Philadelphia: Published By William Young Birch, And Abraham Small, No. 17, South Second-Street. Robert Carr, Printer (1803) @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb-0000.htm. Unfortunately we cannot give pinpoint cites within Blackstone’s Commentaries (“Bl. Commentaries), because the Bl. Commentaries at that excellent website are not yet broken down into small subparts. Thus readers looking for material cited in the text should click on the link provided and then do a word search for the text material.

116 The Roots of American Order (“Roots”), 3rd Edition, Regnery Gateway, Washington, D.C., pp. 372-73 @ AFL.

117 So reported Walter Berns in Commentary Magazine, November 1995.

118 To Thomas Jefferson, Feby 8, 1825, Writings of Madison, Volume 4, 1829-1836, p.481 @ AFL.

119 Locke, John, Two Treatises of Government (1689) ed. Thomas Hollis, London, A. Millar et al. (1764) @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtreat.htm. The work is also referred to as Of Civil Government.

120 GBWW, Vol. 35.

121 The Triumph of Liberty, The Free Press, New York, etc. (2000), pp. 19-20.

122 The Anas, Bergh 1:318 (1792) @ Real Jefferson, p.161 @ AFL. “According to Jefferson, Hamilton favored the adoption of a constitution very much like that of England, which he considered ‘the most perfect government which ever existed.’” Id. at fn. 2 citing The Anas (1818), Bergh 1:279.

123 GBWW, Vol. 44.

124 A Biography of William Blackstone @ http://odur.let.rug.nl/usa/B/blackstone/blackstone.htm.

125 Bailey, Greg, “Blackstone in America” @ http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/B/blackstone/blackstone.htm.

126 Id.

127 Federalist № 84 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa84.htm.

128 Pope, Alexander, “The Dunciad”, Book iv. Line 90, Bartlett, Familiar Quotations, 10th ed. (1919) @ http://www.bartleby.com/100/230.200.html.

129 Martial @  http://www.giga-usa.com/quotes/topics/epigrams_t001.htm.

130 Bergh 12:369 (1810), Real Jefferson, p.532 @ AFL.

131 Ford 9:521 (1815), Real Jefferson, p.532 @ AFL.

132 To James Madison, Bergh 16:158 (1826), Real Jefferson, p.532 @ AFL.

133 To Thomas Jefferson, Feby. 24, 1826, Writings of Madison, Volume 3, 1816-1828, p.518 @ AFL.

134 Mawson, C.O.S., ed. Roget’s International Thesaurus (1922) @ http://www.bartleby.com/110/402.html.

135 Id.

136 Id.

137 Id.

138 To N. P. Trist, July 6, 1826, Writings of Madison, Vol. 3, 1816-1828, p. 525 @ AFL.

139 Mawson, C.O.S., ed. Roget’s International Thesaurus (1922) @ http://www.bartleby.com/110/48.html.

140 Mawson, C.O.S., ed. Roget’s International Thesaurus (1922) @ http://www.bartleby.com/110/890.html.

141 Of Civil Government §3 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr01.htm.

142 Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 478 @ AFL.

143 Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 478 @ AFL.

144 Federalist 54 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa54.htm.

145 Eaton, William, Who Killed the Constitution: The Judges v. The Law, p. 205 @ AFL.

146 Of Civil Government §27 @ AFL.

147 Of Civil Government §4 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr02.htm.

Van Horne’s Lessee v. Dorrance, 2 U.S. 304, 310 (1795) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/2/304.html.

148 Bl. Commentaries, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch16s5.html.

149 Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 474 @ AFL.

150 To Dr. Benjamin Rush, Bergh 13:2 (1811), Real Jefferson, p. 467 @ AFL.

151 Hamilton’s Estimate of Jefferson, By Alexander Hamilton, May 26, 1792, America, Vol. 4, p. 272 @ http://www.lexrex.com/enlightened/writings /gazette/hamjeff.htm.

152 Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 478 @ AFL.

153 Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch16s23.html.

154 Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch16s23.html.

155 Note Madison’s reference to the United States in the plural “they”.

156 Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch16s23.html.

157 BLD @ 764.

158 BLD @ 765.

159 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

160 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

161 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

162 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

163 Psalm 115.16 per Blackstone.

164 Of Civil Government §25 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr05.htm.

165 Translation from http://www.lonang.com/exlibris/blackstone/bla-201.htm.

166 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

167 Of Civil Government §28, Founders’ Constitution
@ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch16s3.html.

168 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

169 Of Civil Government §31 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr05.htm.

170 Of Civil Government §31 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr05.htm.

171 Of Civil Government §37-38 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr05.htm.

172 Of Civil Government §45 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr05.htm.

173 Of Civil Government §51 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr05.htm.

174 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

175 A usufruct is “the right of enjoying a thing, the property of which is vested in another; and to draw from the same all the profit, utility and advantage which it may produce provided it be without altering the substance of the thing.” BLD at 1384.

176 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

177 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

178 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

179 “Of public right.” BLD at 1106.

180 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

181 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

182 Of Civil Government §123 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr09.htm.

183 Of Civil Government §124 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr09.htm.

184 Of Civil Government §124 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr09.htm.

185 Of Civil Government §125 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr09.htm.

186 Of Civil Government §126 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr09.htm.

187 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

188 Of Civil Government §45 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr05.htm.

189 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

190 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

191 H.L. Mencken, “Sententiæ: Masculum et Feminam Creavit Eos,” A Mencken Chrestomathy (1949) @ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/husband.html.

192 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

193 Of Civil Government §131@ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr09.htm.

194 Of Civil Government §131 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr 09.htm.

195 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

196 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

197 For an excellent work on the subject of condemnation, see Epstein, Richard, Takings: Private Property and the Power of Eminent Domain, Harvard University Press, Cambridge & London (1985).

198 Blackstone often showed a great deal of humility about his work. See Bailey, Greg, “Blackstone In America”,

20 February 2006 @ http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/B/blackstone/blackstone.htm.

199 The Farmer Refuted,” The Works of Alexander Hamilton, ed. John C. Hamilton, Vol. 2, p. 61 (1850) from Respectfully Quoted @ http://www.bartleby.com/73/1058.html.

200 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

201 Escheat is a “reversion of property to the state in consequence of a want of any individual competent to inherit.” BLD at 488.

202 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

203 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

204 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

205 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

206 The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. 1, pp. 62-64 @ AFL.

207 The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. 1, pp. 73-74 @ AFL.

208 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

209 “One who has the… right of enjoying anything in which he has no property.” BLD @ 1384.

210 “Of a wild nature or disposition”. BLD @ 558.

211 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

212 Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 479 @ AFL.

213 Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 479 @ AFL.

214 Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 479 @ AFL.

215 To James Madison, Bergh 7:96 (1788), Real Jefferson, p. 552 @ AFL.

216 Second Inaugural Address, Bergh 3:382 (1805), Real Jefferson, p. 483 @ AFL.

217 Bergh 14:466 (1816), Real Jefferson, p. 599 @ AFL.

218 Aristotle, Politics, Book III:I, Translated by Benjamin Jowett @ AFL.

219 Id. at Book III:IV

220 Id. at Book III:VI

221 Id. at Book IV:VIII.

222 Of Civil Government §90 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr07.htm.

223 Aristotle, Politics, Book I:I @ AFL.

224 Aristotle, Politics, Book III:VI @ AFL.

225 Aristotle, Politics, Book IV:VIII @ AFL.

226 Of Civil Government §172 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr15.htm.

227 Of Civil Government §198 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr17.htm.

228 Of Civil Government §132 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr10.htm.

229 Federalist 63 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa63.htm.

230 A Second Letter from Phocion, Apr. 1784, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch17s21.html.

231 Federalist № 78 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa78.htm.

232 Report of 1799, Virginia House of Delegates @ http://www.constitution.org/rf/vr_1799.htm.

233 Thomas Jefferson, Kentucky Resolutions, Bergh 17:388 (1798), Real Jefferson, p. 382 @ AFL.

234 Of Civil Government §157 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr13.htm.

235 From http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=full_quote.php%3Fquote=127&Itemid=275.

236 Of Civil Government §57 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr06.htm.

237 Of Civil Government §202 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr18.htm.

238 Ex Parte Milligan, 71 U.S. 2, 120 (1866) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/71/2.html.

239 The Common Law (1881): “The first requirement of a sound body of law is that it should correspond with the actual feelings and demands of the community, whether right or wrong” (1938 ed., p. 41), cited at http://www.answers.com/topic/capital-punishment.

240 Glennon, Michael J., Professor of International Law, “A Fractured Planet Needs Pragmatism”, April 23, 2003, Reprinted from International Herald Tribune @ http://dc.indymedia.org/newswire/display/66581/www.imcmalta.org.

241 University of Chicago Press, December 2000.

242 The University of Chicago Chronicle, March 15, 2001, Vol.. 20 No. 12 @ http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/010315/alschuler-holmes.shtml.

243 Section 15 @ http://legis.state.va.us/laws/search/constitution.htm.

244 Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 403 @ AFL.

245 Speech, House of Commons, 22 Feb. 1848 @ http://www.bartleby.com/100/424.6.html.

246 “Notes on Virginia ”, Bergh 2:221 (1782), Real Jefferson, p. 602 @ AFL.

247 Bergh 15:24 (1816), Real Jefferson, p. 560 @ AFL.

248 Of Civil Government @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtreat.htm.

249 Discourses Concerning Government (1698) @ http://www.constitution.org/as/dcg_000.htm.

250 See http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=1767&Itemid=28.

251 Chipman, Nathaniel, Principles of Government: A Treatise on Free Institutions Including the Constitution of the United States, http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1146887701/ref=pd_lpo_k2_dp_sr_1?pf_rd_p=486539851&pf_rd_s=lpo-top-stripe-1&pf_rd_t=201&pf_rd_i=0807822922&pf_rd_m=ATVPDKIKX0DER&pf_rd_r=1E1E60YG7N4AZP7C6YWC.

252 Of Crimes and Punishments (1764) @ http://www.constitution.org/cb/crim_pun.htm.

253 An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations @ http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=171&Itemid=28.

254 Say, Jean-Baptiste, A Treatise On Political Economy (1803) Philadelphia, Lippincott, Grambo & Co. (1855), trans. C. R. Prinsep, ed. Clement C. Biddle, Sixth edition @ http://www.econlib.org/library/Say/sayT.html.

255 Ford 9:71 (1807), Real Jefferson, p. 463 @ AFL.

256 To Thomas Jefferson, Feby 8, 1825, Writings of Madison, p. 481 @ AFL.

257 Id. at 482.

258 Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 403 @ AFL.

259 Real Jefferson, pp. 70-71 @ AFL.

260 Bergh 16:118 (1825), Real Jefferson, p. 401 @ AFL.

261 To Dr. James Mease (Sept. 26, 1825), Bergh 16:123, Real Jefferson, p. 72 @ AFL.

262 To James Madison (30 Aug. 1823), Bergh 15:464, Real Jefferson, p. 72 @ AFL.

263 HIS jaws uplifting from their fell repast,
That sinner wip’d them on the hairs o’ th’ head,
Which he behind had mangled, then began:
“Thy will obeying, I call up afresh
Sorrow past cure, which but to think of wrings
My heart, or ere I tell on’t. But if words,
That I may utter, shall prove seed to bear
Fruit of eternal infamy to him,
The traitor whom I gnaw at, thou at once
Shalt see me speak and weep. Who thou mayst be
I know not, nor how here below art come:
But Florentine thou seemest of a truth,
When I do hear thee. Know I was on earth
Count Ugolino, and th’ Archbishop he Ruggieri.

The Vision of Hell, Part 10, Canto 33. By Dante Alighieri, Illustrated by Dore, Translated By The Rev. H. F. Cary, M.A. @ http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/8/7/8/8788/8788-h/8788-h.htm.

264 The Anas, Bergh 1:271 (1818), Real Jefferson, p. 469 @ AFL.

265 Id.

266 Hamilton, Alexander, “Hamilton’s Estimate Of Jefferson ”, America, Vol. 4, p. 273 @ AFL.

267 To Henry Lee (8 May 1825), Bergh 16:118 (1825), Real Jefferson, p. 71 @ AFL.

268 “The Farmer Refuted,” The Revolutionary Writings of Alexander Hamilton (1775) (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2008) @ http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=advanced_search.php.

269 Remarks at the New York convention on the adoption of the federal constitution, Poughkeepsie, New York, June 27, 1788, Elliot, Jonathan, The Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution, Vol. 2, p. 348 (1836, reprinted 1937) @ AFL and @ http://www.bartleby.com/73/762.html.

270 The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, Vol. 1, p. 12, quoted by Harry V. Jaffa, Original Intent and the Framers of the Constitution, p.35 @ AFL and at http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch3s5.html.

271 Federalist № 84 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa84.htm.

272 Federalist 43 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa43.htm.

273 “On Jaffa, Lincoln, Marshall, and Original Intent”, Forward to Original Intent and the Framers of the Constitution, p. 3 @ AFL.

274 Id. at 4-5.

275 From http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/excess.

276 Original Intent and the Framers of the Constitution, p. 16 @ AFL.

277 Id. at 22-23, citing Writings of ]ames Madison, Hunt, ed., Vol. IX. p. 221, Jefferson’s resolutions, incorporating Madison’s suggestions, are in The Complete Jefferson, Padover, ed., p. 1112.

278 Id. at 23, citing Leo Strauss, Thoughts on Machiavelli (1958), Midway Reprint, University of Chicago Press (1984), p. 13.

279 Id. at 23-24 (fn. omitted).

† “Of its own kind or class”. BLD at 1286.

†† “With stronger reason”. BLD at 56.

280 Original Intent and the Framers of the Constitution, p. 24-25 @ AFL, citing Union and Liberty: The Political Philosophy of John C. Calhoun, Liberty Classics edition, Ross M. Lence, ed., Indianapolis, Liberty Fund (1992) @ http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=683&Itemid=27

281 “Of its own kind or class”. BLD at 1286.

282 Harry V. Jaffa, Original Intent and the Framers of the Constitution, p.24 @ AFL.

283 Harry V. Jaffa, Original Intent and the Framers of the Constitution, p.24 @ AFL.

284 “With stronger reason”. BLD at 56.

285 Original Intent and the Framers of The Constitution, p. 24-25 @ AFL.

286 Id. at 35.

287 Who Killed The Constitution: the Judges v. the Law, p. 204 @ AFL.

288 Id.

289 Id. at 205.

290 Id.

291 Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

292 Bergh 13:166 (1812), Real Jefferson, p. 358 @ AFL.

293 From http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/spring97/blackstone.html.

294 Bartlett Familiar Quotations, 10th ed. (1919) from Reflections on the Revolution in France Vol. iii. p. 453 @ http://www.bartleby.com/100/276.34.html.

295 http://earlyamerica.com/review/spring97/blackstone.html, “Blackstone In America: Lectures by An English Lawyer Become The Blueprint for a New Nation’s Laws and Leaders”.

296 Id.

297 From http://www.bigg-wither.com/content/view/16/2/.

298 To Henry Lee (8 May 1825), Bergh 16:118-19, Real Jefferson, p. 71 @ AFL.

299 Roots, p. 405 @ AFL.

300 Of Civil Government §4 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr02.htm.

301 Of Civil Government §5 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr02.htm.

302 Roots, p. 406 @ AFL. “Tabula rasa” means “blank slate”. See http://www.bartleby.com/59/5/tabularasa.html.

303 Roots, p. 407 @ AFL.

304 Id. at 408.

305 Id.

306 Id. at 408-409.

307 Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch1s3.html.

308 Bergh 15:24 (1816); Real Jefferson, p. 419 @ AFL.

309 To George Washington, Ford 3:466 (1784), Real Jefferson, p. 419 @ AFL.

310 Ford 10:39 (1816), Real Jefferson, p. 419 @ AFL.

311 Bergh 15:482 (1823), Real Jefferson, p. 419 @ AFL.

312.[1] Bergh 15:139 (1817), Real Jefferson, p. 419 @ AFL.

313.[1] Bergh 17:88 (1786), Real Jefferson, p. 419-20 @ AFL.

314.[1] Writings of Madison, Vol.. 1, 1769-1793, p. 164 @ AFL.

315.[1] Writings of Madison, Vol.. 3, 1816-1828, p. 179 @ AFL.

316.[1] Federalist 10 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa10.htm.

317.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 4, §2.

318.[1] Federalist 80 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa80.htm.

319.[1] Of Civil Government §7 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr02.htm.

320.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

321.[1] Familiar Exposition §119 @ AFL.

322.[1] St. Commentaries §1738 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_33810.htm.

323.[1] Familiar Exposition §228 @ AFL.

324.[1] Roots, p. 405 @ AFL.

325.[1] Of Civil Government §172 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr15.htm.

326.[1] Of Civil Government §16 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr03.htm.

327.[1] Of Civil Government §17 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr03.htm.

328.[1] Of Civil Government §18 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr03.htm.

329.[1] Roots, p. 405, @ AFL.

330.[1] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2nd Ed., USCC Publishing Services: Washington, D.C. (2000) ¶2267 @ http://www.usccb.org/catechism/text/pt3sect2chpt2art5.shtml.

331.[1] Filmer, Sir Robert, Observations Concerning the Original of Governments (1652).

332.[1] Of Civil Government §22 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr04.htm.

333.[1] Of Civil Government §6 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr02.htm.

334.[1] Of Civil Government §7 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr02.htm.

335.[1] Roots, p. 405 @ AFL.

336.[1] Roots, pp. 404-405 @ AFL.

337.[1] Of Civil Government §87 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr07.htm.

338.[1] Bergh 17:456 (1826), Real Jefferson, p. 560 @ AFL.

339.[1] Ford 5:205 (1790), Real Jefferson, p. 559-560 @ AFL.

340.[1] Roots, p. 409-10 @ AFL.

341.[1] Roots, p. 410 @ AFL.

342.[1] Leviathan, Chapter XIII @ http://www.constitution.org/th/leviatha.txt.

343.[1] Of Civil Government §140 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr11.htm.

344.[1] Of Civil Government §119 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr08.htm.

345.[1] Federalist 28 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa28.htm.

346.[1] Roots, p.411 @ AFL.

347.[1] Roots, p.402 @ AFL.

348.[1] Of Civil Government §225 @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch3s2.html.

349.[1] Federalist 84 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa84.htm.

350.[1] Hamilton’s Estimate of Jefferson, Source: America, Vol. 4, p. 272. Taken from a letter dated May 26, 1792, to Colonel Edward Carrington. http://www.lexrex.com/enlightened/writings /gazette/hamjeff.htm.

351.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

352.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

353.[1] Bl. Commentaries, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch3s3.html.

354.[1] Bl. Commentaries Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch3s3.htm.

355.[1] Bl. Commentaries, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch3s3.html.

356.[1] Federalist 37 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa37.htm.

357.[1] Kirk, Russell, John Randolph of Roanoke: A Study in American Politics, 4th Ed., Liberty Fund, Indianapolis (1997), JR to Haramanus Blecker, April 14, 1814, p. 35.

358.[1] Id. at 45, quoting Gregory, Horace, “Our Writers and the Democratic Myth”, Bookman, LXXV, 377-82.

359.[1] From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tertium_quids.

360.[1] Kirk, Russell, John Randolph of Roanoke: A Study in American Politics, 4th Ed., Liberty Fund, Indianapolis (1997) p.37, from Act III. Scene VI. King Lear. Craig, W.J., ed. (1914). The Oxford Shakespeare  @ http://www.bartleby.com/cgi-bin/texis/webinator/sitesearch?FILTER=colShakespe&query=%22The+little+dogs+and+all%22&x=10&y=7

361.[1] Id. at 61.

362.[1] Kirk, Russell, John Randolph of Roanoke: A Study in American Politics, Liberty Fund, Indianapolis (1997) p.14., spoken at the Virginia Convention, 1829.

363.[1] The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, London, Henry G. Bohn (1854-56), Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch13s6.html.

364.[1] Id. @ http:/press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch13s7.html.

365.[1] Federalist № 10 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa10.htm.

366.[1] Federalist 10 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa10.htm.

367.[1] Federalist 10 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa10.htm.

368.[1] Federalist 10, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch4s19.html

369.[1] Federalist № 63, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/print_documents/v1ch4s27.html.

370.[1] Federalist № 63, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/print_documents/v1ch4s27.html.

371.[1] Federalist 63, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/print_documents/v1ch4s27.html.

372.[1] Bergh 14:490 (1816), Real Jefferson, p. 608 @ AFL.

373.[1] Bergh 15:23. (1816), Real Jefferson, p. 608 @ AFL.

374.[1] Federalist 9, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch4s18.html.

375.[1] Federalist 52 @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_2_1s14.html

376.[1] Federalist 52 @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_2_1s14.html.

377.[1] Federalist 52 @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_2_1s14.html.

378.[1] St. Commentaries §572 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_309.htm.

379.[1] St. Commentaries §575 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_309.htm.

380.[1] Federalist 84 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa84.htm.

381.[1] Cessante legis praemio, cessat et ipsa lex. The more common way of saying this seems to be Cessante ratione legis, cessat et ipsa lex = Where the reason for a law ceases, the law itself also ceases. See BLD at 207. However, that translation seems not to fit what Justice Story is saying here.

382.[1] St. Commentaries §459 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

383.[1] To Joseph C. Cabell, October 30, 1828, Writings of Madison, Vol. 3, 1816-1828, p. 655 @ AFL. Though certainly not true of the Preamble, caution is always important in any legislation for often the result of the legislation brings on a greater evil than the evil that existed before. For example, as Herbert Spenser said, “The evils of competition have all along been the stock cry of the Socialists; and the council of the Democratic Federation denounces the carrying on of exchange under ‘the control of individual greed and profit.’ My second reply is that interferences with the law of supply and demand, which a generation ago were admitted to be habitually mischievous, are now being daily made by Acts of Parliament in new fields; and that, as I shall presently show, they are in these fields increasing the evils to be cured and producing fresh ones, as of old they did in fields no longer intruded upon.” The Man versus the State (1884) @ http://www.constitution.org/hs/manvssta.htm.

384.[1] St. Commentaries §462 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

385.[1] Familiar Exposition §45 @ AFL.

386.[1] The Alien and Sedition Acts are summarized by Wikipedia @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alien_and_Sedition_Acts:

“There were actually four separate laws making up what is commonly referred to as the ‘Alien and Sedition Acts’:

  1. The Naturalization Act (officially An Act to Establish a Uniform Rule of Naturalization; ch. 54, 1 Stat. 566) extended the duration of residence required for aliens to become citizens of the United States.
  2. The Alien Friends Act (officially An Act Concerning Aliens; ch. 58, 1 Stat. 570) authorized the president to deport any resident alien considered “dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States.” It was activated June 25, 1798, with a two year expiration date.
  3. The Alien Enemies Act (officially An Act Respecting Alien Enemies; ch. 66, 1 Stat. 577) authorized the president to apprehend and deport resident aliens if their home countries were at war with the United States of America. Enacted July 6, 1798, and providing no sunset provision, the act remains intact today as 50 U.S.C. § 2124. At the time, war was considered likely between the U.S. and France.
  4. The Sedition Act (officially An Act for the Punishment of Certain Crimes against the United States; ch. 74, 1 Stat. 596) made it a crime to publish “false, scandalous, and malicious writing” against the government or its officials. It was enacted July 14, 1798, with an expiration date of March 3, 1801 (the day before Adams ‘ presidential term was to end).”

387 Elliot, Jonathan, Debates on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution, Vol. 4, p. 567 @ AFL.

388.[1] See U.S. Const., Art. 1, §10, Cl. 1.

389.[1] Bergh 15:448 (1823), Real Jefferson, p. 383 @ AFL.

390.[1] Bergh 15:449 (1823), Real Jefferson, p. 383 @ AFL.

391.[1] Bergh 15:448 (1823), Real Jefferson, p. 380 @ AFL.

392.[1] ”In fieri”= incomplete. BLD at 700.

393.[1] St. Commentaries §463 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

394.[1] St. Commentaries §463 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

395.[1] St. Commentaries §463 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

396.[1] St. Commentaries §463 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

397.[1] № 39 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa39.htm.

398.[1] St. Commentaries §463 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

399.[1] St. Commentaries §463 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

400.[1] 14 U.S. 304, 324 (1816) @ http://supreme.justia.com/us/14/304/case.html.

401.[1] St. Commentaries §463 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

402.[1] Ipse dixit: “He himself said it; a bare assertion resting on the authority of an individual.” BLD at 743.

403.[1] Aeschylus (525–456 B.C.), The Persians, l. 821 @ 407 http://quotes.dictionary.com/For_insolence_once_blossoming_bears_its_fruit_a

404.[1] Attributed to John Jay.—Frank Monaghan, John Jay, chapter 15, p. 323 (1935). According to Monaghan, this “was one of his favorite maxims.” Unverified in the writings of Jay, although the essence of this is expressed in several passages. Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations (1989) @ http://www.bartleby.com/73/764.html.

405.[1] To Thomas Ritchie, December 25, 1820, Jefferson Writings, The Library of America: Literary Classics of the United States, Inc., New York, p. 1445 @ http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/P/tj3/writings /brf/jefl263.htm.

406.[1] New Views, “Introduction” p. xl.

407.[1] Id. at xli.

408.[1] The Report on Manufactures (1791), American State Papers, Documents, Legislative and Executive, of the Congress of the United States, etc., Walter Lowrie and Matthew Clarke, eds., Vol. V, Washington (1832) pp. 123–144 @ http://america.eb.com/america/print?articleId=385372.

409.[1] Bergh 6:272 (1787), Real Jefferson, p. 632 @ AFL.

410.[1] Bergh 6:277 (1787), Real Jefferson, p. 632 @ AFL.

411.[1] Bill Vaughn @ http://www.quotationspage.com/quotes/Bill_Vaughan/.

412.[1] St. Commentaries §463 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

413.[1] St. Commentaries §464 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

414.[1] St. Commentaries §464 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

415.[1] St. Commentaries §465 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

416.[1] St. Commentaries §466 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

417.[1] St. Commentaries §467 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

418.[1] Federalist 39 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa39.htm.

419.[1] Federalist 39 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa39.htm.

420.[1] New Views, p. 104 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

421.[1] New Views, pp. 104-106 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm, quoting from Federalist 39 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa39.htm.

422.[1] Federalist 39 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa39.htm.

423.[1] New Views, p. 108 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

424.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 1, §1.

425.[1] The extreme Federalists’ anti-war convention of 1814-1815 which was held in secret but rumoured to have agreed to succeed from the Union.

426.[1] New Views, pp. 108-110 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

427.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 1, §2, Cl. 3.

428.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 1, §2, Cl. 3.

429.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 1, §4, Cl. 1.

430.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 2, §1, Cl. 3.

431 Col. Taylor continues: “The distinction between a state and a people, upon which Mr. Madison’s idea seems to be founded, is contrary to the settled political idiom; and too feeble to defeat the plain words of the Constitution. It has often been correctly said by the best writers, that there is no people where there is a despot. Not that there are no men, but no political society, defined by the term people. As a despot annihilates a people, so would a consolidated government annihilate the people of each state. Upon their rights, the supremacy of a despot, or any other supremacy, would have the same effect. To obtain an American nation, Mr. Madison confounds the words men and people, as if they were of the same political import; and as state representatives could only be elected by men, he makes this unavoidable act an instrument for the destruction of the rights of these men, obtained by their having constituted themselves into nations, or a people of each state; and transforms these men into an American people having no rights, upon no other grounds, than that they are men, live in America, and vote for the formation of one branch of a federal Congress.

The only justification of this transformation which he alleges, is, that these men will be represented in the same proportion, and on the same principle, as they are in the legislature of each particular state. I can neither accede to the facts nor the inference. As to the fact of proportion, it is defeated by the circumstance of counting a portion of slaves to apportion representation, and by the loss of any surplus of population beyond the quota adopted for fixing the number of state representatives; and as to the principle of state and federal representation, it is intirely different. State legislatures are a national representation, and as such invested with general powers. Upon this principle, the men composing a people or a state, are represented in state legislatures. But the men or people of each state are represented in Congress, upon the principle that it is a federal legislature, invested with limited, and not national or general powers. The first principle of representation invests state legislatures with a power to pass national laws for the government of actual states or nations; but the second does not invest Congress with a power to pass national laws for the government of an imaginary state or nation. [Even if] however the facts were true, they could not destroy the restrictions of the Constitution.” New Views, pp. 108-112 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

432.[1] Federalist 39 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa39.htm.

433.[1] Federalist 39 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa39.htm.

434.[1] Mutatis mutandis: “With the necessary changes in points of detail”. BLD at 919.

435.[1] Federalist 39 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa39.htm.

436.[1] New Views, pp. 114-115 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm

437.[1] Federalist 39 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa39.htm.

438.[1] Federalist 39 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa39.htm.

439.[1] Federalist 39 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa39.htm.

440.[1] U.S. Articles of Confederation. XIII. “And the articles of this confederation shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the Union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them; unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the Legislatures of every State.” http://www.constitution.org/cons/usa-conf.htm.

441.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 5.

442.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 7.

443.[1] New Views, pp. 211-212 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

444.[1] Federalist 39 @ http://www.constitution.org/cons/usa-conf.htm.

445.[1] New Views, p. 1 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

446.[1] New Views, pp. 1-3 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

447.[1] New Views, p. 5 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

448.[1] New Views, p. 7 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

449.[1] http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/211883/foedus.

450.[1] New Views, pp. 17-18 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

451.[1] New Views, p. 8-9 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

Doctor Zhivago, ch. 1, sct. 5 (1957) @ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/211883/foedus.

452.[1] New Views, p.10 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

453.[1] New Views, p. 11 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

454.[1] New Views, p. 19 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

455.[1] New Views, p. 22 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm

456.[1] Col. Taylor: It is plain that some members of the convention came with preparatory impressions that the distinction of states ought to be destroyed, and availed themselves of a thin convention to obtain a footing for the opinion. On the first day of the session, two projects are offered, both founded upon the principle of a supreme national government, and on the second, the deputies of six states resolve to annihilate thirteen. The hastiness of this movement indicates a design to obtain a victory by surprise, ascertains the existence of a concert unfaithful to credentials, and displays a rooted hostility to the state governments. A blow so unexpected and violent was endeavoured to be suspended by succinctly urging in the adverse resolution, that it was the duty of the convention “to carry into execution the design of the states,” but not a single day is allowed for consideration, and the treachery of sacrificing duty to prepossession is instantly perpetrated. The states and the duty are entombed together, by a resolution to establish a supreme national government. New Views, pp. 23-24 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

457.[1] New Views, pp. 22-24 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

458.[1] New Views, pp. 24 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

459.[1] New Views, pp. 24-25 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

460.[1] New Views, pp. 25-26 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

461.[1] New Views, p. 27 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

462.[1] New Views, p. 30 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

463.[1] New Views, p. 30 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

464.[1] 505 U.S. 833, 833-34 (1992) @ http://supreme.justia.com/us/505/833/case.html.

465.[1] New Views, pp. 37-38 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

466.[1] New Views, pp. 38-39 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

467.[1] New Views, p. 39 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

468.[1] New Views, pp. 39-40 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

469.[1] Johnson, Samuel), “Vanity of Human Wishes”, Line 362 @ http:/www.bartleby.com/100/249.9.html.

470.[1] Epistulae ad lucilium, epistle 90 @ http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Moral_letters _to_Lucilius/Letter_90.

471.[1] Speech, July 16, 1964, accepting presidential nomination, Republican National Convention, San Francisco. Quoted in New York Times (July 17, 1964), http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Extremism _in_the_Defense_of_Liberty_Is_No_Vice.

472.[1] Epictetus (c. 50–120), Greek Stoic philosopher. Dissertations, fragment 34, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/e/epictetus397220.html.

473.[1] Oscar Wilde, Lord Illingworth, in A Woman of No Importance, act 3, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/o/oscarwilde161916.html.

474.[1] Mark Twain, “Seventieth Birthday Speech,” p. 715, Mark Twain: Collected Tales, Sketches, Speeches, & Essays, 1891-1910, Library of America (1992) @ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/m/marktwain395844.html.

475.[1] Thomas Paine, letter to the addressers on the late proclamation against seditious writings, The Writings of Thomas Paine, ed. Moncure D. Conway, Vol. 3, pp. 94–95 (1895) @ http://www.bartleby.com/73/1199.html.

476.[1] H.W. Fowler, The King’s English, 2nd ed. (1908), http://www.bartleby.com/116/506.html.

477.[1] Edmund Burke, Reflections on the French Revolution, The Harvard Classics (1909–14) ¶111 @ http://www.bartleby.com/24/3/5.html.

478.[1] Reflections on the French Revolution, The Harvard Classics (1909–14), ¶403 @ http://www.bartleby.com/24/3/16.html.

479.[1] Some Thoughts Concerning Education, The Harvard Classics (1909–14), §§ 121–130, ¶¶223-225 @ http://www.bartleby.com/37/1/13.html.

480.[1] The Confessions of St. Augustine, The Harvard Classics (1909–14), The Tenth Book, ¶44 @ http://www.bartleby.com/7/1/10.html.

481.[1] Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (121–180), The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, The Harvard Classics (1909–14), The Philosophy of Antoninus, by George Long, M. A. ¶¶41-42.@ http://www.bartleby.com/2/3/14.html.

482.[1] Source: unknown, but see http://www.worldofquotes.com/author /Aristotle /1/index.html.

483.[1] New Views, pp. 41-42 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

484.[1] New Views, p. 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

485.[1] New Views, pp. 42-43 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

486.[1] New Views, pp. 43-44 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

487.[1] New Views, p. 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

488.[1] New Views, pp. 83-84 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

489.[1] New Views, p. 84 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

490.[1] New Views, pp. 84-86 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

491.[1] Federalist 31 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa31.htm.

492.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 1, §10, Cl. 2.

493.[1] Federalist 32 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa32.htm.

494.[1] Federalist 32 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa32.htm.

495.[1] Federalist 32 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa32.htm.

496.[1] Federalist 32 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa32.htm.

497.[1] Federalist 32 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa32.htm.

498.[1] U.S. Const., Article 1, §8, Cl. 17.

499.[1] Federalist 32 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa32.htm.

500.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 1, §8, Cl. 1.

501.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 1, §10, Cl. 2. Words in brackets are Hamilton’s condensation of the clause.

502.[1] Federalist 32 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa32.htm.

503.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 1, §8, Cl. 4. The brackets indicate Hamilton’s condensation.

504.[1] Federalist 32 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa32.htm.

505.[1] “[Congress shall have power:] To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.” U.S. Const., Art. 1, §8, Cl. 18.

506.[1] Federalist 33 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa33.htm.

507.[1] Federalist 33 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa33.htm.

508.[1] “Army assembly” per http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Century_Assembly.

509.[1] Commitia tributia = tribal assembly per http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribal_Assembly

510.[1] Federalist 34 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa34.htm.

511.[1] New Views, pp. 89-91 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

512.[1] Federalist 23 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa23.htm.

513.[1] New Views, pp. 91-92 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

514.[1] U.S. Const., Article 6, Cl. 2.

515.[1] New Views, p. 93 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

516.[1] New Views, p. 138 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

517.[1] Attributed to Winston Churchill @ http://www.bartleby.com/110/499.html.

518.[1] From http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa39.htm.

519.[1] Federalist 46 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa46.htm.

520.[1] Federalist 46 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa46.htm.

521.[1] Federalist 46 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa46.htm.

522.[1] See Hylton v. United States, 3 U. S. 171 (1796) @ http://supreme.justia.com/us/3/171/case.html.

523.[1] Bank Law: see Madison’s speech @ http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=875&chapter=63865&layout=html&Itemid=27.

524.[1] Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 516 @ AFL.

525.[1] Id. @ AFL.

526.[1] Id.

527.[1] Id..

528.[1] Id. at 517.

529.[1] Id.

530.[1] Id. at 518.

531.[1] Id.

532.[1] Id.

533.[1] Id.

534.[1] Id at 519.

535.[1] Id.

536.[1] Id.

537.[1] Id.

538.[1] Id. at 520.

539.[1] Id.

540.[1] Id.

541.[1] To Thomas Jefferson, June 27, 1823, Writings of Madison, Vol. 3, 1816-1828, p. 326 @ AFL.

542.[1] To Thomas Jefferson, June 27, 1823, Writings of Madison, Vol. 3, 1816-1828, p. 326 @ AFL.

543.[1] “On Nullification” (1835-36), Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 422 @ AFL.

544.[1] “On Nullification” (1835-36), Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 423 @ AFL.

545.[1] New Views, pp. 86 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

546.[1] Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 423 @ AFL.

547.[1] Note “have”, the plural form of the verb “to be”, signifying the numerosity of the United States and contradicting the modern usage (“the United States had”) which assumes the United States to be a consolidated body.

548.[1] “On Nullification” (1835-36), Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, pp. 424-425 @ AFL.

549.[1] Jonathan Swift, repr. in Jonathan Swift: A Critical Edition of the Major Works, eds. Angus Ross and David Woolley (1984). “Various Thoughts Moral and Diverting,” Miscellanies in Prose and Verse (1711) @ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/j/jonathansw122506.html.

550.[1] Citing Federalist № 9 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa09.htm.

551.[1] Citing U.S. Const., Article 6.

552.[1] Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 205 @ AFL.

553.[1] For which, see http://www.constitution.org/rf/vr_1798.htm.

554.[1] For which, see http://www.constitution.org/jm/18300828_everett.htm.

555.[1] To. N. P. Trist. December, 1831, Writings of Madison, Vol. 4, 1829-1836, p. 205 @ AFL.

556.[1] New Views, p. 143 @ http://www.constitution.org/jt/jtnvc.htm.

557.[1] Jonathan Elliot, Debates on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution, Vol. 4, p. 23 @ AFL.

558.[1] Bergh 15:297 (1820), Real Jefferson, p. 501 @ AFL. Last sentence from http://www.restore-government-accountability.com/judicial-tyranny.html.

559.[1] St. Commentaries §472 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

560.[1] St. Commentaries §475 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

561.[1] For which see http://www.constitution.org/cons/usa-conf.htm.

562.[1] St. Commentaries §475 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

563.[1] St. Commentaries §482 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

564.[1] St. Commentaries §484 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

565.[1] St. Commentaries §484 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm; U.S. Const., Art. 6.

566.[1] St. Commentaries §485 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

567.[1] Cf. Home Bldg. & Loan Ass’n v. Blaisdell, 290 U.S. 398 (1934), http://supreme.justia.com/us/290/398/case.html and discussion.

568.[1] St. Commentaries §486 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

569.[1] St. Commentaries §486 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

570.[1] Of Civil Government §219 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr19.txt.

571.[1] “We neither sell nor deny, nor delay, to any person, equity or justice ”. BLD at 963.

572.[1] “In goods, in lands, or in person”.

573.[1] Bl. Commentaries, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/amendV_due_processs8.html.

574.[1] Found at http://www.bartleby.com/100/358.html.

575.[1] Summa Theologica, II-II 58:2, http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3058.htm#article2.

576.[1] Federalist 51 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa51.htm.

577.[1] To George Wythe, Bergh 4:258 (1776), Real Jefferson, p. 499 @ AFL.

578.[1] First Inaugural Address, Bergh 3:321 (1801), Real Jefferson, p. 505 @ AFL.

579.[1] Ford 8:264 (1803), Real Jefferson, p. 505 @ AFL.

580.[1] Bergh 14:490 (1816), Real Jefferson, p. 505 @ AFL.

581.[1] To John Adams, Bergh 15:76 (1816), Real Jefferson, p. 505 @ AFL.

582.[1] Ford 10:32 (1816) @ Real Jefferson, p. 505 @ AFL.

583.[1] St. Commentaries §489 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

584.[1] St. Commentaries §494 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

585.[1] St. Commentaries §495 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

586.[1] St. Commentaries §494 @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/preambles21.html.

587.[1] St. Commentaries §497 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

588.[1] St. Commentaries §497 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

589.[1] St. Commentaries §500 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

590.[1] St. Commentaries §500 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

591.[1] St. Commentaries §501 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_306.htm.

592.[1] Of Civil Government §131 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr09.htm.

593.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

594.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

595.[1] From http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa45.htm.

596.[1] 5 U.S. (I Cranch) 137, 176 (1803) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/5/137.html.

597.[1]There are, of course, other constitutional powers of congress, but those concern mostly the internal relations between the branches of government or the internal organization of the federal branches. These “intra-governmental” powers often present very interesting constitutional issues, e.g., separation of powers. In this chapter we concern ourselves only with external federal legislative power.

598.[1] “Jurisdiction” and “power” are interchangeable terms. See BLD at 766.

599.[1] Federalist 75 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa75.htm.

600.[1] Of Civil Government §143 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr12.htm.

601.[1] Of Civil Government §134 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr11.htm.

602.[1] Of Civil Government §142 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr11.htm.

603.[1] Summa I-II 90:1 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2090.htm#article1.

604.[1] Summa I-II 93:2 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2093.htm#article2.

605.[1] Summa I-II 93:5 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2093.htm#article5.

606.[1] Summa I-II 93:3 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2093.htm#article2.

607.[1] Summa I-II 93:3 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2093.htm#article3.

608.[1] Summa I-II 93:3 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2093.htm#article3.

609.[1] Summa I-II 91:4 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2091.htm#article4.

610.[1] Summa I-II 72:1 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2072.htm#article6.

611.[1] Summa I-II 70:3@ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2070.htm#article3.

612.[1] Summa I-II 91:5 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2091.htm#article6.

613.[1] Summa I-II 98:1 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2098.htm#article1.

614.[1] “Syntopicon”, GBWW, Vol. 2, pp. 852-53 (“Justice ”).

615.[1] Summa I-II 91:2 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2091.htm#article2.

616.[1] Summa I-II 94:3 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2094.htm#article3.

617.[1] Summa I-II 94:5 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2094.htm#article5.

618.[1] Summa I-II 94:2 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2094.htm#article2.

619.[1] Summa I-II 94:2 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2094.htm#article2.

620.[1] Summa I-II 94:2 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2094.htm#article2.

621.[1] Summa I-II 100:11 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2100.htm#article11.

622.[1] Summa I-II 100:1 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2100.htm#article1.

623.[1] Summa I-II 91:3 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2091.htm#article3.

624.[1] Summa I-II 92:1 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2092.htm#article1.

625.[1] Summa I-II 92:1 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2092.htm#article1.

626.[1] Summa I-II 95:1 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2095.htm#article1.

627.[1] Summa I-II 95:2 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2095.htm#article2.

628.[1] Summa I-II 95:3 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2095.htm#article3.

629.[1] Summa I-II 95:4 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2095.htm#article4.

630.[1] Summa I-II 96:1 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2096.htm#article1.

631.[1] Summa I-II 96:2 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2096.htm#article2.

632.[1] Summa I-II 96:4 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2096.htm#article4.

633.[1] Summa I-II 96:4 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2096.htm#article4.

634.[1] Summa I-II 96:5 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2096.htm#article5.

635.[1] Summa I-II 96:6 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2096.htm#article6.

636.[1] Summa II-II 66:2 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3066.htm.

637.[1] Summa I-II 98:1 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/2098.htm.

638.[1] ομοονσιον = omoonsion. This word is only mentioned in two English documents on the internet. I think it means the Consubstantiality of Christ. Actually I just looked it up the “consubstantiality” on Wikipedia and found a link to “homoousian”, which I am now sure is the same word, because I just realized that the text version has very similar Greek letters. The original author probably used an archaic or incorrect term. The correct word would be “ὁμοούσιος“. – http://www.searchgodsword.org/his/ad/ecf/pos/athanasius/view.cgi?file=npnf2-04-05.htm&number=7 , http://books.google.com/books?id=zK8QAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA460&lpg=PA460&dq=omoonsion&source=bl&ots=68FiLikuTa&sig=umx-D-jn3THFYtxQ_phWUfcJT7Y&hl=en&ei=zAu-TMK1LsiknQeJ_KmJDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homoousian

639.[1] Bl. Commentaries, Introduction @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb-1102.htm.

640.[1] Constitution of Liberty, p. 153.

641.[1] Of Civil Government §57 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr06.htm.

642.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

643.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

644.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

645.[1] Federalist 48 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa48.htm.

646.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

647.[1] Federalist 83 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa83.htm.

648.[1] Federalist 48 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa48.htm.

649.[1] “A deceptive goal or hope” from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ignis+fatuus.

650.[1] Federalist 30 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa30.htm.

651.[1] Articles of Confederation., Article VIII.

652.[1] Federalist .30 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa30.htm.

653.[1] Federalist 30 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa30.htm.

654.[1] Familiar Exposition §155 @ AFL.

655.[1] Federalist 31 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa31.htm.

656.[1] Federalist 31 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa31.htm.

657.[1] Familiar Exposition §155 @ AFL.

658.[1] Federalist 41 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa41.htm.

659.[1] Federalist 83 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa83.htm.

660.[1] “Report on Manufactures”, http://www.constitution.org/ah/rpt_manufactures.pdf

661.[1] Writings of Madison, Vol. 3, 1816-1828, p. 483 @ AFL.

662.[1] St. Commentaries §906 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_314.htm.

663.[1] U.S. v. Butler, 297 U.S. 1, 66 (1936) @ http://supreme.justia.com/us/297/1/case.html.

664.[1] Federalist 36 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa36.htm.

665.[1] Federalist 21 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa21.htm.

666.[1] Federalist 21 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa21.htm. In the same vein Hamilton wrote of the “signal advantage of taxes on articles of consumption that they contain in their own nature a security against excess. They prescribe their own limit, which cannot be exceeded without defeating the end proposed—that is, an extension of the revenue. When applied to this object, the saying is as just as it is witty that, ‘in political arithmetic, two and two do not always make four.’ If duties are too high, they lessen the consumption; the collection is eluded; and the product to the treasury is not so great as when they are confined within proper and moderate bounds. This forms a complete barrier against any material oppression of the citizens by taxes of this class, and is itself a natural limitation of the power of imposing them. Impositions of this kind usually fall under the denomination of indirect taxes, and must for a long time constitute the chief part of the revenue raised in this country.” Federalist 21 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa21.htm.

667.[1] Second Inaugural Address, Bergh 3:376 (1805), Real Jefferson, p. 247 @ AFL.

668.[1] Bergh 13:42 (1811), Real Jefferson p. 640 @ AFL.

669.[1] The rule: direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States… according to their respective Numbers. Article 1, §3.

670.[1] Federalist 21 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa21.htm.

671.[1] Federalist 21 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa21.htm.

672.[1] Familiar Exposition §156 @ AFL. 

673.[1] Familiar Exposition §156 @ AFL.

674.[1] Note the distinction made between “commerce ” and agriculture and manufacturing, signifying that commerce is neither agriculture nor manufacturing, an important point when it comes to defining the meaning of commerce in the commerce clause.

675.[1] Familiar Exposition §157 @ AFL.

676.[1] LaBelle Iron Works v. United States, 256 U.S. 377 (1921) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/256/377.html; Brushaber v. Union Pacific R. Co., 240 U.S. 1 (1916) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/240/1.html; Head Money Cases, 112 U.S. 580 (1884) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/112/580.html. But see United States v. Ptansynski, 462 U.S. 74 (1983) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/462/74.html (upholding an exemption from crude oil windfall profits tax of Alaskan oil).

677.[1] Capitation taxes are upon the person. BLD @ 191.

678.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 1, §3.

679.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 1, §9, Cl. 4.

680.[1] St. Commentaries §1051 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_315.htm.

681.[1] St. Commentaries §1051 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_315.htm.

682.[1] Federalist № 30 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa30.htm.

683.[1] Federalist № 41 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa41.htm.

684.[1] Again the distinction referred to earlier.

685.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

686.[1] Real Jefferson, p.203 @ AFL.

687.[1] Bergh 6:188 (1787), Real Jefferson, p. 392 @ AFL.

688.[1] To John W. Eppes, Bergh 3:269 (1813), Real Jefferson, pp. 394-95 @ AFL.

689.[1] Bergh 15:23 (1816), Real Jefferson, p. 356 @ AFL.

690.[1] Bergh 15:39 (1816), Real Jefferson, p.397 @ AFL.

691.[1] Bergh 15:325 (1821), Real Jefferson, p. 432 @ AFL.

692.[1] Bergh 16:76 (1824), Real Jefferson, p. 463 @ AFL.

693.[1] Letter, April 30, 1781 @ http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Debt.

694.[1] Letter, September 9, 1792, to George Washington: Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. 24, p. 352, ed. Julian P. Boyd, et al. (1950) @ http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Alexander_Hamilton .

695.[1] Bergh 10:64 (1798) Real Jefferson, p.431 @ AFL.

696.[1] Federalist 45 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa45.htm.

697.[1] Warren, Charles, The Supreme Court in United States History (1922), p. 501, quoted in Berger, Federalism, p. 121.

698.[1] The Constitution of the United States, Analysis and Interpretation, Library of Congress, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington (2002), p. 169 @ http://frwebgate3.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/TEXTgate.cgi?WAISdocID=WGScug/0/1/0&WAISaction=retrieve.

699.[1] Federalist 11 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa11.htm.

700.[1] Federalist 40 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa40.htm.

701.[1] St. Commentaries § 1071 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_315.htm.

702.[1] To Albert Gallatin, 13 Oct. 1802 @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_3_commerces10.html.

703.[1] Federalist 22 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa22.htm.

704.[1] Familiar Exposition §171 @ AFL.

705.[1] Familiar Exposition §164 @ AFL.

706.[1] Familiar Exposition §172 @ AFL.

707.[1] Federalist 11 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa11.htm.

708.[1] Federalist 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa42.htm.

709.[1] Familiar Exposition, p.140 @ AFL.

710.[1] Articles of Confederation §9 @ http://www.constitution.org/cons/usa-conf.htm.

711.[1] Federalist 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa42.htm.

712.[1] Federalist 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa42.htm.

713.[1] St. Commentaries §1094 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_315.htm.

714.[1] St. Commentaries §1094 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_315.htm.

715.[1] St. Commentaries §1095 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_315.htm.

716.[1] Familiar Exposition §164 @ AFL.

717.[1] “Naturalization ” is the process of admission to citizenship.

718.[1] Privileges and immunities: a subject covered in a later volume of this work.

719.[1] Federalist 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa42.htm.

720.[1] St. Commentaries §1098 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_316.htm.

721.[1] St. Commentaries §1099 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_316.htm citing Federalist 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa42.htm.

722.[1] “Of cutting a debtor into pieces.” BLD at 371.

723.[1] Mons sacer = the sacred mount, aka Monte Sacro (in Rome) – http://books.google.com/books?id=xRAwAAAAIAAJ&lpg=PA48&ots=cWNwDkeKbg&dq=hostes%20hi%20sunt%20qui%20nobis%2C%20aut%20quibus%20nos%2C%20publice%20bellum%20decrevimus%3A%20caeteri%20latrones%20aut%20praedones%20sunt%20translation&pg=PA136#v=onepage&q=mons%20sacer&f=false

724.[1] “All bodily torture being also removed.” http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/william-blackstone/a-translation-of-all-the-greek-latin-italian-and-french-quotations-which-occu-cal/page-6-a-translation-of-all-the-greek-latin-italian-and-french-quotations-which-occu-cal.shtml

725.[1] “It was inhuman, being deprived of all his fortune, to be utterly ruined.” Source lost.

726.[1] Bl. Commentaries, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_4_bankruptcys1.html.

727.[1] Bl. Commentaries, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_4_bankruptcys1.html.

728.[1] Familiar Exposition §175 @ AFL.

729.[1] Federalist 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa42.htm.

730.[1] As Mr. Justice Story wrote, “Not only was paper money declared to be a tender in payment of debts: but other laws, having the same general object, and interfering with private debts, under the name of appraisement laws, installment laws, and suspension laws, thickened upon the statute book of many States in the Union, until all public confidence was lost, and all private evils, resulting from this source, can scarcely be comprehended in our day. But they were so enormous, that the whole country seemed involved in a general bankruptcy: and fraud and chicanery obtained an undisputed mastery. Nothing but an absolute prohibition, like that contained in the Constitution, could arrest the overwhelming flood; and it was accordingly hailed with the most sincere joy by all good citizens. It has given but that healthy and sound currency, and that solid private credit, which constitute the true foundation of our prosperity, industry, and enterprise.” Familiar Exposition §236 @ AFL.

731.[1] St. Commentaries §1100 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_316.htm.

732.[1] “As far as it goes.” BLD at 1100.

733.[1] “By an equal progress; equably; ratably; without preference.” BLD at 1004.

734.[1] St. Commentaries §1101 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_316.htm.

735.[1] St. Commentaries §1102 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_316.htm.

736.[1] St. Commentaries §1103 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_316.htm.

737.[1] St. Commentaries §1104 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_316.htm.

738.[1] St. Commentaries §1105 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_316.htm.

739.[1] St. Commentaries §1108 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_316.htm.

740.[1] Interest reipublicae, ut finis sit litium. – It is for the public good that there be an end to contentions. – http://books.google.com/books?id=xRAwAAAAIAAJ&lpg=PA48&ots=cWNwDkeKbg&dq=hostes%20hi%20sunt%20qui%20nobis%2C%20aut%20quibus%20nos%2C%20publice%20bellum%20decrevimus%3A%20caeteri%20latrones%20aut%20praedones%20sunt%20translation&pg=PA190#v=snippet&q=Interest%20reipublicae,%20ut%20finis%20sit%20litium&f=falseSt. Commentaries §1109 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_316.htm.

741.[1] St. Commentaries §1110 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_316.htm.

742.[1] Federalist 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa42.htm.

743.[1] Federalist 10 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa10.htm.

744.[1]No State shall… coin money: emit bills of credit: make anything but gold and silver coin tender in payment of debts:….” U.S. Const., Art. 1, §10.

745.[1] Federalist 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa44.htm.

746.[1] Isaiah 1:22. Douay-Rheims @ http://www.newadvent.org/bible/isa001.htm.

747.[1] St. Commentaries §1112 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_317.htm

748.[1] St. Commentaries §1113 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_317.htm.

749.[1] St. Commentaries §1113 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_317.htm.

750.[1] St. Commentaries §1113 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_317.htm.

751.[1] St. Commentaries §1114 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_317.htm.

752.[1] St. Commentaries §1115 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_317.htm.

753.[1] St. Commentaries §1116 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_317.htm.

754.[1] “To abide by… decided cases.” BLD at 1261.

755.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

756.[1] The statute of ells and perches. BLD at 259. Literally: “Composition of yards and perches”.

757.[1] “The ordinance of measures ”. BLD at 259.

758.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

759.[1] Federalist 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa42.htm.

760.[1] St. Commentaries §1117 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_317.htm.

761.[1] Leviticus 19:35-36 Douay-Rheims @ http://www.newadvent.org/bible/lev019.htm.

762.[1] Federalist 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa42.htm.

763.[1] Familiar Exposition §178 @ Afl.

764.[1] St. Commentaries §1118 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_317.htm.

765.[1] Federalist 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa42.htm.

766.[1] To James Madison, Bergh 9:324 (1796), Real Jefferson, p. 428 @ AFL.

767.[1] The Works of Thomas Jefferson, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-ubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_7s4.html.

768.[1] St. Commentaries §1119 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

769.[1] St. Commentaries §1119 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

770.[1] St. Commentaries §1119 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

771.[1] St. Commentaries §1120 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

772.[1] St. Commentaries §1120 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

773.[1] St. Commentaries §1123 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

774.[1] St. Commentaries §1125 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

775.[1] St. Commentaries §1126 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

776.[1] St. Commentaries §1127 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

777.[1] St. Commentaries §1129 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

778.[1] St. Commentaries §1129 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

779.[1] Potestas stricte interpreter: “power is strictly interpreted”. BLD at 1052.

780.[1] St. Commentaries §1133 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

781.[1] St. Commentaries §1145 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

782.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

783.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

784.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb3.htm.

785.[1] Federalist №. 43 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa43.htm.

786.[1] St. Commentaries §1147 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_319.htm.

787.[1] St. Commentaries §1147, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_8s14.html.

788.[1] St. Commentaries §1149, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-ubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_8s14.html.

789.[1] To Isaac McPherson, 13 Aug. 1813, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch16s25.html.

790.[1] Bl. Commentaries, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_9s1.html.

791.[1] Federalist 81 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa81.htm.

792.[1] Federalist 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa42.htm.

793.[1] St. George Tucker, Founders’ Constitution, @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_10s6.html.

794.[1] To James Monroe, January 22d, 1786, Writings of Madison, Vol. 1 (1769-1793) p.222 @ AFL.

795.[1] St. Commentaries §1153 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_320.htm.

796.[1] “Intent to steal”. BLD @ 81 (under “animo”).

797.[1] St. Commentaries §1154 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_320.htm.

798.[1] 304 U.S. 64 (1938) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/304/64.html.

799.[1] St. Commentaries §1155 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_320.htm.

800.[1]  Per feloniam = With a criminal intention. See BLD at 555.

801.[1] Felonice = feloniously – http://books.google.com/books?id=xRAwAAAAIAAJ&lpg=PA48&ots=cWNwDkeKbg&dq=hostes%20hi%20sunt%20qui%20nobis%2C%20aut%20quibus%20nos%2C%20publice%20bellum%20decrevimus%3A%20caeteri%20latrones%20aut%20praedones%20sunt%20translation&pg=PA241#v=onepage&q=felonice&f=false

802.[1] St. Commentaries §1156, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-ubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_10s14.html.

803.[1] St. Commentaries §1157, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-ubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_10s14.html.

804.[1] St. Commentaries §1158, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-ubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_10s14.html.

805.[1] “Divided jurisdiction”. BLD at 431.

806.[1] St. Commentaries §1159, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-ubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_10s14.html.

807.[1] St. Commentaries §1160, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-ubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_10s14.html.

808.[1] St. Commentaries §1161, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_10s14.html.

809.[1]  Hostes hi sunt qui nobis, aut quibus nos, publice bellum decrevimus: caeteri latrones aut praedones sunt = Those are enemies who have publicly declared war against us, or against whom we have publicly declared war; all others are thieves or robbers. http://books.google.com/books?id=xRAwAAAAIAAJ&lpg=PA48&ots=cWNwDkeKbg&dq=hostes%20hi%20sunt%20qui%20nobis%2C%20aut%20quibus%20nos%2C%20publice%20bellum%20decrevimus%3A%20caeteri%20latrones%20aut%20praedones%20sunt%20translation&pg=PA48#v=onepage&q&f=false

810.[1] Bl. Commentaries, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_11s1.html.

811.[1] Federalist 41 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa41.htm.

812.[1] Of Civil Government §16 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr03.htm.

813.[1] Federalist 23 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa23.htm.

814.[1] Federalist 23 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa23.htm

815.[1] Familiar Exposition §185 @ AFL.

816.[1] The Works of the Honourable James Wilson, l. l. d, Vol.. II. Philadelphia: at the Lorenzo Press (1804) @ http://www.constitution.org/jwilson/jwilson2.doc.

817.[1] Familiar Exposition §185 @ AFL.

818.[1] Familiar Exposition §186 @ AFL.

819.[1] St. Commentaries §1166 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_321.htm.

820.[1] St. Commentaries §1166 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_321.htm.

821.[1] Summa II-II 40:1 @ http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3040.htm.

822.[1] Pertinent parts following are found at http://www.usccb.org/catechism/text/pt3sect2chpt2art5.shtml#2307 et seq.

823.[1] St. Commentaries §1172 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_321.htm.

824.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

825.[1] Bl. Commentaries@ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

826.[1] Federalist 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa44.htm.

827.[1] From http://www.piratedocuments.com/Letters%20of%20Marque/american_schooner_1814.htm.

828.[1] Federalist 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa44.htm.

829.[1] Familiar Exposition §187 @ AFL.

830.[1] St. Commentaries §1170 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_321.htm.

831.[1] St. Commentaries §1171 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_321.htm.

832.[1] St. Commentaries §1171 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_321.htm.

833.[1] Familiar Exposition §188 @ AFL.

834.[1] From James McClellan @ Liberty, Order, and Justice: An Introduction to the Constitutional Principles of American Government, Appendix C: The English Bill of Rights (1689).

835.[1] Bl. Commentaries, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_12s3.html.

836.[1] Federalist 25 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa25.htm.

837.[1] Federalist 24 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa24.htm.

838.[1] Federalist 41 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa41.htm.

839.[1] Federalist 41 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa41.htm.

840.[1] St. Commentaries §1179 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_321.htm.

841.[1] St. Commentaries §1181 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_321.htm.

842.[1] Familiar Exposition §189 @ AFL.

843.[1] St. Commentaries §1174 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_321.htm.

844.[1] Familiar Exposition §190 @ AFL.

845.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

846.[1] Federalist 41 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa41.htm.

847.[1] Federalist 11 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa11.htm.

848.[1] Federalist 24 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa24.htm.

849.[1] St. Commentaries §1189 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_321.htm.

850.[1] St. Commentaries §1190 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_321.htm.

851.[1] Familiar Exposition §191 @ AFL.

852.[1] Familiar Exposition §192 @ AFL; http://www.constitution.org/js/js_321.htm.

853.[1] St. Commentaries §1192 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_321.htm.

854.[1] St. Commentaries §1193 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_321.htm.

855.[1] U.S. Const., Art. 1, §8, Cl. 17.

856.[1] Bl. Commentaries, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_15s1.html.

857.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

858.[1] Federalist 29 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa29.htm.

859.[1] “The entire population of a county above the age of fifteen, which the sheriff may summon to his assistance in certain cases, as to aid him in [his duties ].” BLD at 1046.

860.[1] St. Commentaries §1196 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_322.htm.

861.[1] St. Commentaries §1196 Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_15s23.html.

862.[1] Federalist 29 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa29.htm.

863.[1] Federalist 29 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa29.htm.

864.[1] Federalist 29 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa29.htm.

865.[1] Federalist 29 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa29.htm.

866.[1] Federalist 29 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa29.htm.

867.[1] Federalist 29 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa29.htm.

868.[1] Federalist 29 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa29.htm.

869.[1] Federalist 29 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa29.htm.

870.[1] Jay wrote three of the Federalist papers.

871.[1] Federalist 4 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa04.htm.

872.[1] Federalist 29 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa29.htm.

873.[1] Familiar Exposition §195 @ AFL.

874.[1] Familiar Exposition §195 @ AFL.

875.[1] St. Commentaries §1203 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_322.htm.

876.[1] Familiar Exposition §193 @ AFL.

877.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

878.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

879.[1] Bl. Commentaries @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

880.[1] “Wretched is the thraldom when law is either uncertain or un-
known.” Source lost.

881.[1] Bl. Commentaries, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_16s2.html.

882.[1] St. Commentaries §1203 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_322.htm.

883.[1] St. Commentaries §1204 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_322.htm.

884.[1] St. Commentaries §1204 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_322.htm.

885.[1] “The case of the treaty ”. BLD at 198.

886.[1] Pendente lite: “During litigation”. BLD at 1020. Et flagrante bello: And “during an actual state of war.” BLD at 575.

887.[1] St. Commentaries §1205 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_322.htm.

888.[1] St. Commentaries §1206 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_322.htm.

889.[1] St. Commentaries §1208 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_322.htm.

890.[1] St. Commentaries §1208 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_322.htm.

891.[1] “The threefold obligation: that is, to repair bridges, to build towers,
and to serve against the enemy.”

892.[1] “There were in England, in effect, as many kings, or rather tyrants,
as there were lords of castles.”

893.[1] Bl. Commentaries, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_17s1.html.

894.[1] Federalist 43 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa43.htm.

895.[1] Familiar Exposition §199 @ AFL.

896.[1] St. Commentaries §1215 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_323.htm.

897.[1] St. Commentaries §1216 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_323.htm.

898.[1] St. Commentaries §1217 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_323.htm. Capitolî immobile saxum:

899.[1] St. Commentaries §1218 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_323.htm.

900.[1] St. Commentaries §1218 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_323.htm.

901.[1] Federalist 43 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa43.htm.

902.[1] Familiar Exposition §201 @ AFL.

903.[1] Quoad hoc = to this extent.

904.[1] St. Commentaries §1220 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_323.htm.

905.[1] St. Commentaries §1221, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_17s22.html.

906.[1] St. Commentaries §1222, Founders’ Constitution @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_17s22.html.

907.[1] St. Commentaries §1140 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

908.[1] National parks hardly seem of a “like nature” to dock-yards, forts, etc.

909.[1] St. Commentaries §1141 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_318.htm.

910.[1] See Federalist 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa44.htm.

911.[1] Federalist 33 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa33.htm.

912.[1] Federalist 33 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa33.htm.

913.[1] Federalist 33 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa33.htm.

914.[1] Federalist № 33 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa33.htm.

915.[1] Federalist 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa44.htm.

916.[1] Federalist 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa44.htm.

917.[1] Federalist 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa44.htm.

918.[1] Federalist 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa44.htm.

919.[1] Federalist 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa44.htm.

920.[1] Federalist 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa44.htm.

921.[1] Federalist 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa44.htm.

922.[1] “[A] implying also an affirmative.” BLD at 930.

923.[1] Federalist 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa44.htm.

924.[1] “Of the same kind, class, or nature.” BLD at 464.

925.[1] Id.

926.[1] Federalist 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa44.htm.

927.[1] Federalist 44 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa44.htm.

928.[1] Familiar Exposition §207 @ AFL.

929.[1] Familiar Exposition §208 @ AFL.

930.[1] Suitable: “Fit and appropriate for the end in view.” BLD at 1286. “That is fitted for, adapted or appropriate to a person’s character, condition, needs, etc., a purpose, object, occasion, or the like.” Oxford English Dictionary. Proper: “Suitable for a specified or implicit purpose or requirement; appropriate to the circumstances or conditions; of the requisite standard or type; apt, fitting; correct, right.” Oxford English Dictionary. “That which is fit, suitable, adapted, correct.” BLD at 1094. Appropriate: “Specially fitted or suitable, proper.” Oxford English Dictionary. [Undefined in BLD.]

931.[1] Necessary: “Indispensable, vital, essential; requisite.” Oxford English Dictionary. Black’s Law Dictionary (at 928) gives the term “necessary ” multiple meanings including (incorrectly) “appropriate, suitable, proper.”

932.[1] Familiar Exposition §208 @ AFL.

933.[1] Familiar Exposition §209 @ AFL

934.[1] U.S. Const., Article 1, §9.

935.[1] Indeed even the modern U.S. Supreme Court agrees here. In United States v. Curtiss-Wright Corp., 299 U.S. 304, 316 (1936) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/299/304.html the court said whether implied federal power exists depends on whether the power is “necessary and proper to carry into effect” an express grant. Professor Berger notes Mr. Justice Story’s statement in Gelston v. Hoyt, 16 U.S. (3 Wheat.) 246, 332-333 (1818) @ http://supreme.justia.com/us/16/246/case.html that “it is certainly against the general theory of our institutions to create great discretionary powers by implication.” Federalism, p. 96.

936.[1] U.S. Const., Article 1, §2, Cl. 3.

937.[1] U.S. Const., Article 3, §3.

938.[1] U.S. Const., Article 4, §1.

939.[1] U.S. Const., Article 4, §3, Cl.1.

940.[1] U.S. Const., Article 4, §3, Cl. 2.

941.[1] U.S. Const., Article 5.

942.[1] The 16th Amendment modified the Article 1, §2 and §9 requirements that direct taxes, such as income taxes, be apportioned among the states according to population.

943.[1] U.S. Const., Article 3, §2.

944.[1] U.S. Const., Article 3, §2.

945.[1] U.S. Const., Article 1, §2, Cl. 3.

946.[1] Federalist 58 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa58.htm.

947.[1] Familiar Exposition §81 @ AFL.

948.[1] Federalist 58 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa58.htm.

949.[1] Federalist 10 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa10.htm.

950.[1] Federalist 10 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa10.htm.

951.[1] Federalist 54 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa54.htm.

952.[1] Federalist 36 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa36.htm.

953.[1] U.S. Const., Article 3, §3, Cls. 1-2.

954.[1] Federalist 43 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa43.htm.

955.[1] Familiar Exposition §211 @ AFL.

956.[1] Familiar Exposition §211 @ AFL.

957.[1] Familiar Exposition §212 @ AFL.

958.[1] Familiar Exposition §401 @ AFL.

959.[1] Familiar Exposition §402 @ AFL.

960.[1] Familiar Exposition §404 @ AFL.

961.[1] Familiar Exposition §405@ AFL.

962.[1] Hamilton, The Works of Alexander Hamilton (Federal Edition), Vol. 10 @ http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=advanced_search.php.

963.[1] U.S. Const., Article 4, §1.

964.[1] Federalist 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa42.htm.

965.[1] Familiar Exposition §§214-215 @ AFL.

966.[1] U.S. Const., Article 4, §3, Cl. 1.

967.[1] Federalist 43 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa43.htm.

968.[1] Familiar Exposition §216 @ AFL.

969.[1] U.S. Const., Article 4, §3, Cl. 2.

970.[1] Federalist 43 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa43.htm.

971.[1] Familiar Exposition §217 @ AFL.

972.[1] American Insurance Co. v. Canter, 26 U.S. 511, 542 (1828) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/26/511.html.

973.[1] U.S. Const., Article 5.

974.[1] Federalist 43 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa43.htm.

975.[1] Familiar Exposition §416 @ AFL.

976.[1] Familiar Exposition §417-18 @ AFL.

977.[1] Federalist 43 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa43.htm.

978.[1] Federalist 85 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa85.htm.

979.[1] U.S. Const., Article 5.

980.[1] Federalist 43 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa43.htm.

981.[1] Federalist 43 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa43.htm.

982.[1] U.S. Const., Amendment 13.

983.[1] U.S. Const., Amendment 14, §1.

984.[1] 60 U.S. §393 @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/60/393.html.

985.[1] Declaration of Independence.

986.[1] See §16.

987.[1] Federalist 80 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa80.htm. . The statement should not be taken as meaning that the states have no jurisdiction in these cases, for if the defendant chooses not to remove the case to federal court, then it remains in state court. More on “diversity jurisdiction” in Section 5 in the next volume.

988.[1] Familiar Exposition §409 @ AFL.

989.[1] Familiar Exposition §393 @ AFL.

990.[1] Berger, The Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights, p. 9, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman (1989), citing The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, Syrett & Cooke, eds. (1962).

991.[1] In the case of laws pertaining to judicial procedure, the due process clause forbids the enactment of procedures that deny notice and an opportunity to be heard.

992.[1] Or a plaintiff. A plaintiff can be deprived of his property without due process if he loses a lawsuit to stop a defendant from taking his property and is denied the opportunity to present his claims. E.g., the baseball tax case.

993.[1] “Property ” is a very broad concept: “Every species of valuable right and interest including lawsuits for invasion of one’s property rights by actionable wrong.” BLD at 1095.

994.[1] Except for legislation dealing with law enforcement or administration.

995.[1] U.S. Const., Amendment 14, §2.

996.[1] U.S. Const., Amendment 14, §§3-4.

997.[1] Perhaps the prohibition against bills of attainder, but the question is complicated, and I shall leave to it others with the vigor to pursue it.

998.[1] U.S. Const., Amendment 15.

999.[1] U.S. Const., Amendment 19.

1000. U.S. CONST., AMENDMENT 26.

1001. U.S. CONST., AMENDMENT 24.

1002. U.S. CONST., AMENDMENT 16.

1003. FEDERALIST № 36 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa36.htm.

1004. FAMILIAR EXPOSITION §157 @ AFL.

1005. Pollack v. Farmers Loan & Trust, 157 U.S. 429 (1895) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/157/429.html.

1006. The 16th Amendment meant that congress could levy direct taxes without apportionment and thus ended, as Professor Richard Epstein says, “fairness between the states”. But he argues that the 16th amendment doesn’t “address fairness between individuals.” He argues, rightly, that the progressive income tax is still unconstitutional, essentially because a progressive rate results in a redistribution of wealth and is a taking for a non-public use in violation of the 5th Amendment. TAKINGS, PRIVATE PROPERTY AND THE POWER OF EMINENT DOMAIN, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. (1985), Ch. 18, p. 295 et seq. (quotes from fn.42). The constitutionality of the progressive income taxes is beyond the scope of this work. Nor do I argue that income taxes as such are unconstitutional. Ahead I argue that it is the level of income and other federal taxes that is unconstitutional, because the tax revenues are being raised for unconstitutional purposes.

1007. FEDERALIST № 14 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa14.htm.

1008. Save for a passing thought in U.S. v. Lopez, 514 U.S. 549 (1995) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/514/549.html. (“The Constitution creates a Federal Government of enumerated powers.”)

1009. FEDERALIST № 45 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa45.htm.

1010. FEDERALIST № 83 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa83.htm.

1011. Note again the use of the plural verb, here “have”, not “has”.

1012. U.S. CONST., Article 1, §8, CL. 1.

1013. FEDERALIST № 45 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa45.htm.

1014. FEDERALIST № 23 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa23.htm.

1015. FAMILIAR EXPOSITION §220 @ AFL.

1016. Gibbons v. Ogden, 22 U.S. 1 (1824) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/22/1.html.

1017. McCulloch v. Maryland, 17 U.S. 316, 414 (1819) @ http://laws.findlaw.com/us/17/316.html.

1018. FEDERALIST № 48 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa48.htm.

1019. FEDERALIST № 72 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa72.htm.

1020. Letter to John Jay, August 23, 1785, THE PAPERS OF THOMAS JEFFERSON, ed. Julian P. Boyd, Vol. 8, p. 426 (1953) @ THE WRITINGS OF THOMAS JEFFERSON, Vol. 5, pp.93–94 @ AFL.

1021. From http://www.bartleby.com/73/1334.html. Attributed to Alexander Hamilton, in a political argument with Thomas Jefferson.—David S. Muzzey, An American History, p. 192 (1911).

1022. Letter to James Madison, December 20, 1787, THE PAPERS OF THOMAS JEFFERSON, ed. Julian P. Boyd, Vol. 12, p. 442 (1955), http://etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1320.htm.

1023. Barry Yelverton (Lord Avonmore): On Blackstone from http://www.bartleby.com/100/358.html.

1024. ST. COMMENTARIES, 2d ed., Vol. 2, chapter 45, p. 617 (1851). This passage was not in the first edition, but in all later editions. See http://www.aol.bartleby.com/73/63.html.

1025. FEDERALIST № 51 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa51.htm.

1026. Motto of the “Salem Register.” LIFE OF STORY, Vol. i. p. 127 from http://www.bartleby.com/100/690.html.

1027. OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT §22 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr04.htm.

1028. Religion & Liberty, November and December 1993, Vol. 3 @ http://www.acton.org/pub/religion-liberty/volume-3-number-6/fisher-ames.

1029. Kirk, Russell, THE CONSERVATIVE MIND, p. 84 @ AFL.

1030. From http://logosresourcepages.org/IronPen/ames.htm.

1031. H.L. (Henry Lewis) Mencken, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/immensely.html.

1032. “Fisher Ames: One of Our Forgotten Founding Fathers”, by David L. Brown, Ph.D.@ http://logosresourcepages.org/IronPen/ames.htm.

1033. Id.

1034. He answered with some of the best Hamiltonian invective ever summoned.

1035. Elite Turkish troops.

1036. Harem.

1037. FEDERALIST № 67 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa67.htm.

1038. FEDERALIST № 48 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa48.htm.

1039. NOTES ON VIRGINIA, query 19, reprinted in THE WRITINGS OF THOMAS JEFFERSON, ed. Andrew A. Lipscomb, Vol. 2, p. 230 (1903) @ AFL. [Suzanne stop]

1040. FEDERALIST № 55 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa55.htm.

1041. FEDERALIST № 48 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa48.htm.

1042. FEDERALIST № 48 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa48.htm.

1043. FEDERALIST № 72 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa72.htm.

1044. FEDERALIST № 72 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa72.htm.

1045. FEDERALIST № 75 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa75.htm.

1046. ST. COMMENTARIES §1434 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_336.htm.

1047. OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT §144 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr12.htm.

1048. OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT §159 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr14.htm. MR. LOCKE added: “This Power to act according to discretion, for the publick good, without the prescription of the Law, and sometimes even against it, is that which is called Prerogative. For since in some Governments the Law-making Power is not always in being, and is usually too numerous, and so too slow, for the dispatch requisite to Execution: and because also it is impossible to foresee, and so by laws to provide for, all Accidents and Necessities, that may concern the publick; or to make such Laws, as will do no harm, if they are Executed with an inflexible rigour, on all occasions, and upon all Persons, that may come in their way, therefore there is a latitude left to the Executive power, to do many things of choice, which the Laws do not prescribe.” OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT §160 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr14.htm.

1049. ST. COMMENTARIES §1407 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_336.htm.

1050. ST. COMMENTARIES §1410 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_336.htm.

1051. BL. COMMENTARIES @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

1052. BL. COMMENTARIES @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

1053. BL. COMMENTARIES @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

1054. “Præmunire:” “Offense against the king and government, though not subject to capital punishment.” BLD at 1056.

1055. FOUNDERS’ CONSTITUTION @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_7_2-3s2.html

1056. ST. COMMENTARIES §880 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_313.htm.

1057. “On Conciliation with America” (1775) @ http://www.bartleby.com/268/6/1.html.

1058. FOUNDERS’ CONSTITUTION @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_7_2-3s3.html, THE WORKS OF THE RIGHT HONOURABLE EDMUND BURKE.

1059. FEDERALIST № 69, FOUNDERS’ CONSTITUTION @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_7_2-3s8.html.

1060. FEDERALIST № 69, FOUNDERS’ CONSTITUTION @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_7_2-3s8.html.

1061. U.S. CONST., Article 1, §7, CL. 2.

1062. ST. COMMENTARIES §888 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_313.htm.

1063. From http://www.senate.gov/reference/glossary_term/pocket_veto.htm.

1064. FEDERALIST № 69, FOUNDERS’ CONSTITUTION @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_7_2-3s8.html.

1065. FEDERALIST № 73

1066. FEDERALIST № 73, FOUNDERS’ CONSTITUTION @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_7_2-3s9.html.

1067. FOUNDERS’ CONSTITUTION @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_7_2-3s12.html

1068. ST. COMMENTARIES §878 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_313.htm.

1069. ST. COMMENTARIES §886 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_313.htm.

1070. ST. COMMENTARIES §886 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_313.htm.

1071. ST. COMMENTARIES §887 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_313.htm.

1072. FEDERALIST № 73 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa73.htm.

1073. FEDERALIST № 73 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa73.htm.

1074. FEDERALIST № 73 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa73.htm.

1075. ST. COMMENTARIES §887 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_313.htm.

1076. FEDERALIST № 73 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa73.htm.

1077. FEDERALIST № 73 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa73.htm.

1078. FEDERALIST № 73 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa73.htm.

1079. FEDERALIST № 73 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa73.htm.

1080. ST. COMMENTARIES §879 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_313.htm.

1081. U.S. CONST., Article 2, §2, CL. 1.

1082. FEDERALIST № 74 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa74.htm.

1083. ST. COMMENTARIES §1485 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1084. ST. COMMENTARIES §1486 http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1085. U.S. CONST., Article 2, §2, CL. 1.

1086. Wrongly said, because, among other things, the president’s commander-in-chief powers exist in peacetime as well as in war.

1087. U.S. CONST., Article1, §8, CL. 17.

1088. Does congress have a duty to supervise the president as commander-in-chief? That is to say, must it exercise its commander-in-chief supervision powers, or can it leave everything up to the president?

1089. A deputy is bound by the same rules that bind his principal.

1090. U.S. CONST., Article 2, §2, CL. 1.

1091. See http://www.constitution.org/mon/tj-bank.htm.

1092. U.S. CONST., Article 2, §2, CL. 1.

1093. ST. COMMENTARIES §1488 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1094. FEDERALIST № 74 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa74.htm.

1095. ST. COMMENTARIES §1492 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1096. ST. COMMENTARIES §1492 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1097. FEDERALIST № 74 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa74.htm.

1098. FEDERALIST № 74 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa74.htm.

1099. ST. COMMENTARIES §1494 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1100. ST. COMMENTARIES §1494@ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1101. ST. COMMENTARIES §1495 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1102. ST. COMMENTARIES §1495 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1103. ST. COMMENTARIES §1497 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1104. ST. COMMENTARIES §1497, fn omitted @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1105. ST. COMMENTARIES §1498 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1106. U.S. CONST., Article 2, §3, CL. 1.

1107. FEDERALIST № 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa42.htm.

1108. Quoad hoc = to this extent. http://books.google.com/books?id=xRAwAAAAIAAJ&lpg=PA48&ots=cWNwDkeKbg&dq=hostes%20hi%20sunt%20qui%20nobis%2C%20aut%20quibus%20nos%2C%20publice%20bellum%20decrevimus%3A%20caeteri%20latrones%20aut%20praedones%20sunt%20translation&pg=PA48#v=onepage&q&f=false

1109. BL. COMMENTARIES @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

1110. BL. COMMENTARIES @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

1111. “On the Treaty with Great Britain” @ http://www.bartleby.com/268/8/22.html.

1112. FEDERALIST № 64 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa64.htm.

1113. FEDERALIST № 64 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa64.htm.

1114. FEDERALIST № 75 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa75.htm.

1115. FEDERALIST № 75 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa75.htm.

1116. FEDERALIST № 75 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa75.htm.

1117. FEDERALIST № 64 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa64.htm.

1118. Id.

1119. ST. COMMENTARIES §1561 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm. stopped with Story Commentaries review here.

1120. FEDERALIST № 75 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa75.htm.

1121. For Madison’s remarks on the role of the House of Representatives in the treaty making process, see http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a2_2_2-3s22.html, though there he does not seem to raise the appropriations point.

1122. FEDERALIST № 75 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa75.htm.

1123. FEDERALIST № 64 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa64.htm.

1124. Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, April 27, 1809 http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/jefferson/149.html.

1125. “It is an established doctrine on the subject of treaties ” Madison said in FEDERALIST № 43 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa43.htm, “that all the articles are mutually conditions of each other; that a breach of any one article is a breach of the whole treaty: and that a breach, committed by either of the parties, absolves the others, and authorizes them, if they please, to pronounce the compact violated and void.”

1126. U.S. CONST., Article 6, CL. 2.

1127. ST. COMMENTARIES 1517 @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a2_2_2-3s34.html.

1128. ST. COMMENTARIES @ 1517 http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a2_2_2-3s34.html.

1129. U.S. CONST., Article 2, §3.

1130. BL. COMMENTARIES @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

1131. FEDERALIST № 42 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa42.htm.

1132. ST. COMMENTARIES §1559 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1133. FEDERALIST № 69 http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa69.htm.

1134. ST. COMMENTARIES §1519 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1135. Flagrante bello = during an actual state of war. BLD at 575

1136. ST. COMMENTARIES §1560 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1137. ST. COMMENTARIES §1562 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1138. Mala prohibita = acts not of themselves wrong, but made crimes. Mala in se = acts wrong of themselves. See BLD at 861-62. BL. COMMENTARIES @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

1139. BL. COMMENTARIES, FOUNDERS’ CONSTITUTION @ http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a2_2_2-3s2.html.

1140. U.S. CONST., Article 2, §2, CL. 2.

1141. Comes = one of the king’s retinue.

1142. Miles = infantryman.

1143. BL. COMMENTARIES @ http://www.constitution.org/tb/tb2.htm.

1144. FEDERALIST № 76 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa76.htm.

1145. FEDERALIST № 76 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa76.htm.

1146. FEDERALIST № 76 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa76.htm.

1147. FEDERALIST № 76 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa76.htm.

1148. FEDERALIST № 76 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa76.htm.

1149. FEDERALIST № 76 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa76.htm.

1150. ST. COMMENTARIES §1528 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1151. ST. COMMENTARIES §1524 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1152. ST. COMMENTARIES §1525 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1153. FEDERALIST № 77 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa77.htm.

1154. ST. COMMENTARIES §1523 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1155. ST. COMMENTARIES §1523 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1156. ST. COMMENTARIES §1526 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1157. ST. COMMENTARIES §1528 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1158. FEDERALIST № 77 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa77.htm.

1159. ST. COMMENTARIES §1529 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1160. ST. COMMENTARIES §1530 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1161. ST. COMMENTARIES §1530 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1162. ST. COMMENTARIES §1531 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1163. ST. COMMENTARIES §1532 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1164. ST. COMMENTARIES §1533 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1165. ST. COMMENTARIES §1535 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1166. ST. COMMENTARIES §1536 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1167. ST. COMMENTARIES §1537 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1168. ST. COMMENTARIES §1538 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1169. ANNALS OF CONGRESS, Vol. 1, col. 387, May 19, 1789.

1170. U.S. CONST., Article 2, §3.

1171. ST. COMMENTARIES §1539 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1172. ST. COMMENTARIES §1540 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1173. ST. COMMENTARIES §1548 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1174. ST. COMMENTARIES §1551 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1175. ST. COMMENTARIES §1552 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1176. ST. COMMENTARIES §1553 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1177. Necessary and expedient as opposed to necessary and proper?

1178. ST. COMMENTARIES §892 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_313.htm.

1179. ST. COMMENTARIES §1555 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1180. U.S. CONST., Article 2, §3.

1181. OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT §156 @ http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtr13.htm.

1182. ST. COMMENTARIES §1556 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1183. ST. COMMENTARIES §1557 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1184. U.S. CONST., Article 2, §3.

1185. FAMILIAR EXPOSITION §291 @ AFL.

1186. FAMILIAR EXPOSITION §292 @ AFL.

1187. ST. COMMENTARIES §1563 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1188. ST. COMMENTARIES §1564 @ http://www.constitution.org/js/js_337.htm.

1189. From http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a2_2_2-3s15.html.

1190. FEDERALIST № 72 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa72.htm.

1191. FEDERALIST № 75 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa75.htm.

1192. FEDERALIST № 64 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa64.htm.

1193. Except in the case of “recess appointments”.

1194. U.S. CONST., Article 1, §8, CL. 12.

1195. FEDERALIST № 48 @ http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa48.htm.

1196. Ultra vires = beyond the powers. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultra_vires

 

 

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