Table of Contents Vols. 1-4 of The Kiss of Judice: The Constitution Betrayed

Table of Contents for Volumes 1-4

Volume 1


Preface  4

Declaration of Independence  9

Constitution of the United States  14

Précis for Volumes 1-End   40

Prologue: The Day the Constitution Died   64

Section 1. Rediscovering the Unadulterated Constitution and its Natural Rights’ Pedigree  94

§1:0. Beginning the coroner’s inquest: some general principles to navigate through the fog of constitutional law    96

§1:00. How to understand the Constitution   97

§1:000. A law like the Constitution is the best expositor of itself  98

§1:001. Common error is never law, even when repeated many times  99

§1:002. The court cases ‘interpreting’ the Constitution are not themselves the law    100

§1:003. Federal powers are ‘few and defined’―Mr. Madison   103

§1:004. Individual rights and states’ powers are numerous and open-ended   103

§1:005. How to determine the legitimacy of claimed federal power  106

§1:0050. Is the power listed?  106

§1:0051. Is the law implementing the power necessary?  106

§1:0052. Is the law proper?  106

§1:006. The Constitution has few, if any, ambiguities  108

§1:007. Partem aliquam recte intelligere memo potest, antequam totem, iterum atque iterum: ‘No one can rightly understand any part until he has read the whole over again’ 108

§1:008. When there is doubt and interpretation of the Constitution may be necessary, the Federalist Papers are the Gospels, and other consistent writings of the Federalist authors and others are the Epistles  109

§1:009. Potestas strict interpretur: In cases of doubt, federal power should be strictly interpreted   110

§1:0010. When there is doubt about the text and apparent conflict between Hamilton and Madison over meaning, Madison’s views prevail 111

§1:0011. When there is conflict between the text of the Constitution and any of the founders’ writings, the text prevails except where it leads to an absurd result  111

§1:0012. Where the supreme court or any other court has no jurisdiction over the subject matter of a case, then the court’s ruling may rightly be disregarded   112

§1:1. A partial list of the Constitution’s power clauses corrupted by the supreme court  113

§1:2. Searching for the Constitution’s genomes  114

§1:20. Our expert witness-genealogists  114

§1:200. Madison: Early Nationalist, father of the Constitution, author of many of the Federalist Papers, and constitutionalist  114

§1:201. Jefferson: Libertarian author of the Declaration of Independence and ultra-Constitutionalist  116

§1:202. Hamilton: Constitutionalist only as an author of the Federalist; otherwise High Federalist-Royalist and ultra-Latitudianarist  116

§1:203. Story: Nationalist-Centralist, moderate Latitudinarianist supreme court judge and legal treatise writer  117

§1:205. Locke: Libertarian Muse of the Constitution   119

§1:30. Why have government?  126

§1:30. To protect property  126

§1:4. What is ‘property’?  128

§1:40. Property: Broad definition: Property is one’s person, labor, and fruits of labor  128

§1:41. Property: Narrow definition: ‘the free use, enjoyment, and disposal of all his acquisitions, without any control or diminution, save only by the laws of the land’—Mr. Justice Blackstone  128

§1:42. Property: Broader definition: Property, in its larger sense, is ‘everything to which a man may attach a value and have a right; and which leaves to every one else the like advantage’—Mr. Madison   131

§1:43. Property: Broadest definition: ‘As a man is said to have a right to his property, he may be equally said to have a property in his rights’—Mr. Madison   132

§1:5. Property in a state of nature  133

§1:50. How property was acquired in a state of nature  134

§1:500. From God: ‘Originally, [t]he earth . . . and all things therein, [were] the general property of all mankind . . . .’—Mr. Justice Blackstone  135

§1:501. How labor created separate property rights  136

§1:51. How natural law itself prevents waste of property  138

§1:510. Nothing was made by God for man to spoil or destroy  138

§1:511. How labour could at first begin a title of property in the common things of nature, and how the spending it upon our uses bounded it  139

§1:52. How long rights to property lasted in a state of nature  139

§1:520. During physical occupancy  140

§1:521. Title until physical abandonment  142

§1:522. Title until abandonment-by-death   142

§1:6. Property rights’ deficiencies in the state of nature  143

§1:60. The enjoyment of property was ‘uncertain and constantly exposed to the invasion of others . . . .’—Mr. Locke  143

§1:61. Other deficiencies in a state of nature  144

§1:610. No settled, known law    144

§1:611. No unbiased judges  144

§1:612. No law enforcement power  145

§1:613. Impermanence and non-transferability  145

§1:614. Increasing scarcity of property  145

§1:7. Emerging from the savage state of vagrant liberty into civil society  148

§1:70. Man combines with others for the mutual preservation of property through law    148

§1:71. Legitimate law in civil society is ‘made by established standing laws, promulgated and known to the people [not by extemporary decrees], and enforced by indifferent and upright judges’―Mr. Locke  149

§1:72. ‘[T]he public good is in nothing more essentially interested, than in the protection of every individual’s private rights . . . .’―Mr. Justice Blackstone  149

§1:73. ‘Civil law is natural liberty . . . secured by the sanctions of civil society’―Mr. Hamilton   150

§1:74. The establishment of civil society made rules for the transfer of property possible  151

§1:740. The civil solution to loss of rights by abandonment: transfer of property by deed   151

§1:741. The civil solutions to abandonment-by-death: transfer by will, transfer by law, or transfer by escheat to the state  151

§1:8. Government’s duties with respect to property  157

§1:80. Prevent arbitrary seizures  157

§1:81. Prevent monopolies and promote free choice of occupations  157

§1:82. Impose equal taxes  158

§1:9. Why a Constitution?  159

§1:90. To establish the form of government  160

§1:91. To protect person and property from the government—to govern the governors  161

§1:910. No legislative act contrary to the Constitution can be valid   162

§1:911. ‘[B]ind [politicians] down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution’—Mr. Jefferson   163

§1:912. To establish ‘a government of laws, not men’—Mr. Adams  163

§1:913. Constitution is ‘a law for rulers and people, equally in war and peace’—Justice David Davis  166

§1:10. The relationship between the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution   166

§1:100. ‘Need for frequent recurrence to fundamental principles . . . as a necessary safeguard to liberty’―Mr. Madison   166

§1:101. The Declaration is an integral part of the Constitution   170

§1:102. ‘[The Declaration is the] holy bond of our Union’—Mr. Jefferson   170

§1:103. Even the Constitution itself is subject to higher law    174

§1:104. The Declaration overrides the rest of the Constitution in cases of inconsistency  174

§1:11. Fundamental political principles and basic individual rights protected by the Declaration (and the Constitution)  187

§1:110. Equality—‘All men are created equal’ 187

§1:111. Natural rights may not be given up or taken away—‘[Men] are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights’ 195

§1:112. Basic rights endowed—‘among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness’ 195

§1:1120. Right to life  196

§1:1121. Right to liberty  198

§1:1122. Right of pursuit of happiness  201

§1:113. Purpose of government—‘to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among men’ 202

§1:114. Government powers originate from consent—deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed   202

§1:115. Right of revolution   205

§1:116. Right of representation   213

Section 2: The Preamble: ‘Better recognition of popular rights than volumes of aphorisms’ 231

§2:0. Why the Preamble? What it reveals about the Constitution   231

§2:00. Preamble: ‘a seamless weld’ between the Declaration and the Constitution—Dr. Eaton   231

§2:01. Preamble: ‘key to open the mind of the makers’―Mr. Justice Story  232

§2:02. The meaning of the Constitution is furnished by the evils to be cured or benefits to be obtained—Mr. Madison   232

§2:03. Preamble: not to be used to augment constitutional powers―Mr. Justice Story  232

§2:1. What the Preamble’s parts mean   236

§2:10. ‘We, the People of the United States’―a very contentious clause. Who created the Constitution? The people or the states? Why it matters: a national or a federal government?  236

§2:100. Justice Story: Government is national. ‘We, the people’ reveals that the Constitution is an act of the people, not of the states, and not a compact  236

§2:101. Mr. Madison: Government has a mixed nature, neither purely federal, nor purely national. The eight relevant factors to consider. The Madison-Taylor debate over those factors  243

§2:1010. Factor 1: Establishing the Constitution   244

§2:10100. Mr. Madison: Establishing the Constitution was a federal, not national, act  244

§2:10101. Col. Taylor’s reply: Establishing the Constitution was a federal act, but not for the reasons Mr. Madison gives  245

§2:1011. Factor 2: The sources of the ordinary powers of government—for the House of Representatives  247

§2:10110. Mr. Madison: House derives powers from the people. In that attribute, government is national, not federal 247

§2:10111. Col. Taylor’s reply: No powers are conveyed to government by election or representation, which are only the means for selecting the persons by whom the powers vested in the federal government are to be exercised   248

§2:1012. Factor 3: The sources of the ordinary powers of government—for the Senate  251

§2:10120. Mr. Madison: Senate derives powers from states. In that attribute, government is federal, not national 251

2:10121. Col. Taylor’s reply: Right conclusion, but again, no powers are conveyed to the federal government by election or representation   251

§2:1013. Factor 4: The sources of the ordinary powers of government—for the President  251

§2:10130. Mr. Madison: President has mixed federal-national attributes  251

§2:10131. Col. Taylor’s reply: The president has no national attributes: again, no powers are conveyed to the federal government by mode of election or representation   252

§2:1014. Factor 5: The direct operation of the government powers on individuals  252

§2:10140. Mr. Madison: Direct operation of government powers on individuals is a national attribute  252

§2:10141. Col. Taylor’s reply: the powers of the federal government are not defined by the mode of nominating its officers but by the Constitution   253

§2:1015. Factor 6: The extent of government powers  254

§2:10150. Mr. Madison: Federal power is over enumerated objects only; leaving states with a residuary and inviolable sovereignty over all other objects; those are federal, not national, attributes  254

§2:10151. Col. Taylor’s reply: Agrees  255

§2:1016. Factor 7: Disputes between states and the federal government  255

§2:10160. Mr. Madison: In controversies between the general government and the states, the tribunal ultimately to decide is under the general government. a national characteristic  255

§2.10161. Col. Taylor’s reply: No federal judicial supremacy, only constitutional supremacy  255

§2:1017. Factor 8: The constitutional amendment process  256

§2:10170. Mr. Madison: Constitutional amendment process is mixed federal and national 256

§2:10171. Col. Taylor’s reply: Constitutional amendment process is purely federal 256

§2:1018. Summary of Mr. Madison’s national vs. federal arguments: A mixed federal-national government  258

§2:102. Col. Taylor’s direct case: Why the government is federal, not national 258

§2:1020. Federal because Declaration establishes that government is federal, not national and supreme  258

§2:10200. ‘Consolidated’ means a fusion of state sovereignties into one mass  259

§2:10201. ‘Federal’ is a league between sovereign nations  260

§2:1021. Federal because an American nation able to make a national Constitution never existed   263

§2:1022. Federal because Constitution was only obligatory upon states that ratified; and because each state comprised a sovereign people, and no people existed, invested with a sovereignty over thirteen states  263

§2:1023. Federal because the mere establishment of state governments demonstrated the existence of state nations  265

§2.1024. Federal because of the federal convention’s rejection of a resolution calling for a national legislature with a veto over state legislation   266

§2:1025. Federal because the word ‘supreme’ used twice in the Constitution does not in either case confer supreme national power. In the one case, it refers to the supremacy of the highest federal court over the inferior federal courts; and in the other the supremacy of the Constitution and laws made in pursuance thereof over all other law    270

§2:1026. Federal because national jurisdiction now claimed for federal courts was rejected   270

§2:1027. Federal because of conditional ratifications of the state conventions  272

§2:1028. Federal because of the 10th Amendment  274

§2:1029. Federal because states were explicitly sovereign under Declaration, states voted by states at the convention, states ratified Constitution as states, states amended the Constitution as states, states reserved power of amendment as states, each state had equal representation in the senate, and states vote for president as states  283

§2:1030. Federal because union, unlike states, has no innate sovereignty; union is subordinate to states because states had formed union, and can ‘unform’ it  284

§2:1031. Federal because of Federalist assurances  285

§2:10310. Federalist assurance that states may use force to oppose federal usurpation   285

§2:10311. Federalist assurance that states retain all power except when union given exclusive authority. States have concurrent authority to exercise delegated union powers unless union power is exclusive  289

§2:10312. Federalist assurances that exclusive union authority only exists in three cases  290

§2:103120. Specific illustrations of the three cases of exclusive federal power  291

§2:1031200. Case 1. Where Constitution in express terms granted an exclusive authority to the union   291

§2:1031201. Case 2. Where it granted in one instance an authority to the union, and in another prohibited states from exercising like authority  291

§2:1031202. Case 3. Where concurrent state power is expressly prohibited   291

§2:10313. Federalist assurance that ‘necessary and proper’ clause does not give government a wide range of sovereignty  292

§2:10314. Federalist assurance that if the government make a tyrannical use of powers, the people, whose creature it is, may take such measures to redress the injury done to the Constitution as exigency may suggest and prudence justify. 293

§2:10315. Federalist assurance that a coordinate federal-state authority exists  294

§2:1032. Federal government supremacy does not arise from the supremacy clause; clause only confers supremacy on the Constitution. Therefore, state laws within their reserved powers, are equally supreme with those of union within its delegated powers  298

§2:1033. Mr. Madison’s view of federal judicial supremacy and his attempt to reconcile it with his doctrine of interposition   300

§2:11. ‘To form a more perfect union’ 320

§2:12. ‘Establishjustice’ 321

§2:13. ‘Ensure domestic tranquility’ 330

§2:14. ‘Provide for the common defence’ 330

§2:15. ‘Promote the general welfare’ 331

§2:16. ‘Secure the blessings of liberty’ 336

Section 3: Federal Legislative Power: ‘Shall Extend to Certain Enumerated Cases’ 338

§3:1. The powers of congress—a catalogue  338

§3:2. The nature of legislative power  339

§3:3. Article 1, §8, powers of congress  355

§3:31. Taxing power  355

§3:311. Need for a taxing power  356

§3:312. Limited purposes for taxes  358

§3:313. Consumption tax uniformity  363

§3:314. Direct tax uniformity  366

§3:32. Borrowing power  367

§3:33. Commerce power  371

§3:331. Commerce = trade  372

§3:332. Foreign trade  375

§3:333. Domestic trade  377

§3:334. Trade with tribes  378

§3:34. Naturalization and bankruptcy law powers  381

§3:341. Naturalization   381

§3:342. Bankruptcy  384

§3:35. Monetary and weights and measures power  393

§3:351. Monetary power  393

§3:352. Weights and measures power  398

§3:36. Counterfeiting law power  401

§3:37. Postal power  402

§3:38. Copyright and patent power  410

§3:39. Court-creating power  415

§3:310. High seas and international crimes power  418

§3:311. War, reprisals, and captures powers  425

§3:3111. The war power  425

§3:3112. Letters of marque and reprisal and captures power  433

§3:312. Armies power  438

§3:313. Navy power  444

§3:314. Military rules power  447

§3:315. Militia calls power  448

§3:316. Militia regulation power  448

§3:317. Federal property power  465

§3:318. Lawmaking power  473

§3:4. Other original legislative powers  483

§3:41. Treaties power  484

§3:42. Census power  484

§3:43. Treason power  486

§3:44. State relations power  491

§3:45. Admitting states power  492

§3:46. Territorial power  493

§3:47. Amendment proposal power  495

§3:5. Additional powers granted by amendments  498

§3:51. Anti-slavery/servitude powers (1865)  499

§3:52. Anti-discrimination powers (1868)  499

§3:521. Citizenship clause—no discrimination by states in state citizenship   500

§3:522. Privileges or immunities clause—no discrimination in state legislation   500

§3:523. Due process clause—no discrimination in judicial proceedings  502

§3:524. Equal protection clause—no discrimination in law enforcement or administration   503

§3:53. The other sections of the 14th Amendment  503

§3:531. Repeal of the 3/5ths rule  504

§3:532. Punishment of confederate civil and military officers, validation of union debt and repudiation of rebellion debt  504

§3:533. The remaining power-granting amendments  505

§3:5331. Voting rights: no race, sex, age, or wealth discrimination   505

§3:5332. Direct taxes without apportionment  505

§3:6. Summary of legislative powers  506

Section 4: Federal Executive Powers: ‘Carefully Limited’ 515

§4:0. Preface  515

§4:11. Executive power: the administration of government  523

§4:12. The general subjects of executive power  523

§4:2. The reasons for an executive power  524

§4:21. Need for perpetual execution of and attendance to the law    524

§4:22. Need for a discretionary executive power to meet unforeseen circumstances  525

§4:22. Need for independence in the executive and separation of executive and legislative power  526

§4:3. Particular executive powers  527

§4:31. Law veto power  527

§4:311. The English and American roots of the American executive’s veto power  527

§4:312. How the president’s veto power works  531

§4:313. The president’s veto power compared with the veto powers of state councils of revision and governors  532

§4:314. The reasons for the president’s veto power  536

§4:3141. Veto checks the propensity of the legislature to strip executive authority  537

§4:3142. Veto a security against improper laws  537

§4:3143. The unlikelihood of the president abusing the veto   539

§4:315. The advantages of the American qualified veto over the English absolute  541

§4:32. Commander-in-chief power  543

§4:321. The need for a single hand in the direction of war  544

§4:322. The commander-in-chief power is not a power to declare war  545

§4:323. The commander-in-chief power is itself subject to congressional regulation   545

§4:33. Opinions power  547

§4:34. Reprieves and pardons powers  548

§4:341. Reprieves and pardons are indispensable tools of justice  548

§4:342. Why the president is given the sole powers of reprieves and pardons  549

§4:3421. The quality of mercy is more often found in a single hand than in a committee  549

§4:3422. In treason cases, the timing of a reprieve or pardon cannot often await the legislative process  551

§4:343. Why reprieves and pardons are not allowed in impeachment or legislative contempt cases  553

§4:35. Foreign affairs powers: treaty and diplomat power  554

§4:351. The treaty-making power  554

§4:3511. The English king’s treaty power is exclusive  555

§4:3512. The American treaty power is a joint executive-legislative power  558

§4:35121. Treaty power is an intermixture of powers  559

§4:35122. Neither president or senate ought to have the sole treaty-making power  560

§4:35122. Why the house of representatives was excluded from the treaty ratification process  561

§4:35123. Why treaties require approval by a supermajority of the senate  562

§4:3513. Treaties are the supreme law of the land and are not repealable at pleasure but may be altered or cancelled only by the consent of both parties  563

§4:3514. The senate’s role in the initial formation of a treaty  564

§4:352. The diplomat power  566

§4:3521. The defects in the articles’ power concerning sending and receiving diplomats  567

§4:3522. The case of the misbehaving ambassador  571

§4:36. Nominations and appointments power  572

§4:361. The English King’s nearly absolute appointment prerogatives  572

§4:362. The American executive’s shared appointments power  573

§4:3621. The president has only the power of nomination. the senate must approve the nomination for an appointment to occur  575

§4:3622. Senate approval is a check on presidential abuse of the nomination power  576

§4:3623. The nomination-confirmation process promotes stability in government  580

§4:363. Why the house of representatives was excluded from the appointment process  583

§4:364. The appointment of lower-ranking officers  583

§4:365. Who has the power of removal of federal appointments  585

§4:366. When an appointment takes effect  591

§4:367. How the president fills vacancies in offices when congress is not in session   592

§4:37. State of the union and recommendations power  594

§4:38. Convening and adjourning power  596

§4:39. Faithful execution of laws and commission powers  598

§4:310. Does the president have any implied or incidental powers?  600

§4:4. Summary of presidential powers  603

Index  607

Selected Bibliography  623

Endnotes  632


Table of Contents for Volume 2

Précis for Volume 1   3

Précis for Volume 2—This Volume  4

Précis for Volume 3-end  5

Table of Contents  12

Preface  20

Declaration of Independence  26

Constitution of the United States  31

Section 5: Federal judicial powers: ‘Carefully Restricted’ 57

§5.0 Preface  57

§5.1 The nature of and reasons for a judicial power   61

§5.2 The need for an independent judiciary  86

§5.21 Judicial power must be separated from executive and legislative powers  86

§5.22 How the judiciary’s independence is constitutionally protected   89

§5.221 By the manner of appointment   89

§5.222 By life tenure (on good behavior)  90

§5.223 By the adequacy of judicial compensation   117

§5.23 The controls on the abuse of judicial power—impeachments of judges  119

§5.231 Mr. Jefferson on the sins of the federal judiciary  121

§5.3 Particular judicial powers: ‘The judicial power shall extend . . . ’ 132

§5.31 ‘To all cases, in law and equity . . .’ 139

§5.311 Cases  139

§5.312 Law cases  140

§5.313 Equity cases  141

§5.314 The effect of state sovereign immunity on federal judicial power   152

§5.315 Table summarizing federal judicial power   190

§5.32 ‘[Cases] arising under the Constitution . . . ’ 196

§5.33 ‘[Arising under] the laws of the United States . . .’ 199

§5.34 ‘And [arising under] treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority;’ 201

§5.35 ‘—To all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls’ 202

§5.36 ‘—To all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction’ 206

§5.37 ‘—To controversies to which the United States shall be a party’ 217

§5.38 ‘—To controversies between two or more states  219

§5.39 ‘—Between a state and citizens of another state; [but not to] any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state;’ 222

§5.310 ‘—Between citizens of different states;’ 226

§5.311 ‘—Between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states;’ 230

§5.312 ‘—And between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects [but not to] any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.’ 232

§5.4 Concurrent or exclusive jurisdiction   235

§5.5 Original jurisdiction. ‘In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction’ 262

§5.6 Federal appellate jurisdiction. ‘In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the congress shall make’. 272

§5.7 May the federal judiciary hear disputes between state and federal governments?  329

§5.8 Jurisdiction-setting powers of congress  335

§5.9 The controversy over appeals as to matters of fact: Did the original Constitution abolish trial by jury in civil cases?  337

§5.10 Trial by jury required in federal criminal cases  357

§5.11 Special rules for treason cases  360

§5.12 Territorial judges  387

§5.13 Summary of section’s conclusions  388

Section 6. Bill of Rights’ and Other Explicit Restrictions on Federal Power  395

§6.1 Article 1, §9, limitations on federal power   396

§6.11—No suspension of Habeas Corpus  397

§6.12—No Bills of Attainder or Ex Post Facto Laws  398

§6.13—No direct taxes unless apportioned according to population   399

§6.14—No tax on exports  400

§6.15—No port preferences  400

§6.16—No money to be taken from treasury unless for lawful appropriation   401

§6.17—No titles of nobility to be granted or accepted; no gifts or other titles from foreign nations  402

§6.18—No denial of right to jury trial in criminal cases  403

§6.19—Oaths; no religious test for public office  403

§6.2 Bill of Rights’ limitations on legislative power   405

§6.21 Bill of Rights catalogued   413

§6.211 Am. 1—No laws respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting its free exercise  414

§6.212 Am. 1—No laws abridging the freedom of speech, press, rights of peaceable assembly and petition   424

§6.2121 The freedoms of speech and press  424

§6.212  Right to petition for redress  438

§6.213 Am. 2—No laws infringing right to bear arms  440

§6.214 Am. 3—No laws forcing quartering of soldiers  444

§6.215 Am. 4—No laws allowing unreasonable searches and seizures  444

§6.216 Am. 5—No laws allowing indictments in felony cases without grand jury approval except in certain military or militia cases  449

§6.217 Am. 5—No laws allowing double jeopardy  451

§6.218 Am. 5—No laws compelling ‘self-incrimination’ 452

§6.219 Am. 5—No laws depriving life, liberty or property without due process  453

§6.2110 Am. 5—No laws confiscating private property  456

§6.2111 Am. 6—No laws denying right to speedy, public jury trial, or right to information on charges and to confront witnesses  458

§6.2112 Am. 6—No laws denying right to summon witnesses and have counsel  464

§6.21121 Compulsory process  464

§6.21122 Right to counsel  466

§6.2113 Am. 7—No laws abridging right to jury trial in civil cases  467

§6.2114 Am. 8—No laws imposing excess bail or fines or cruel and unusual punishment   474

§6.21141 Excessive bail  475

§6.21141 Excessive punishments  479

§6.3 ‘Net federal power’ preliminarily defined   484

§6.5 Restraints on federal power summarized   487

§6.51 The taxing power and how it is limited   490

§6.52 The defense powers and how they are limited   495

Section 7: Reservation of a Universe of Individual Rights  500

§7.0 Preface  500

§7.1 How the 9th Amendment came to be  500

§7.2 Some incorrect views on the meaning of the 9th   501

§7.3 The correct view: the Barnett view that the 9th  Amendment incorporates unenumerated substantive rights  503

§7.4 The Barnett ‘Presumption of Liberty’ 508

§7.5 A partial list of 9th Amendment rights  509

Section 8: An ‘Immense Mass’ of State Powers: the 10th Amendment  512

§8.0 Preface  512

§8.1 The scope and purpose of the 10th Amendment   513

§8.2 An examination of the specific powers of states  521

§8.21 Except where cessions have been made, the territory covered by the Constitution is owned by the individual states in its separate character and not to the United States in its aggregate character   522

§8.22 The United States are not a consolidation of state governments  522

§8.23 The state powers summarized and compared with federal power   523

§8.231 Federal powers summarized   523

§8.3 The wisdom of federal-state division of powers  526

§8.4 State rights to interpose against unauthorized federal powers  534

§8.41 The states are the parties to the constitutional compact; the Constitution was submitted to the states and the states ratified it   535

§8.42. Federal powers are ‘limited by the plain sense and intention of the instrument constituting that compact,’ and ‘as no farther valid than they are authorized by the grants therein enumerated.’ 536

§8.43. Duty of interposition   537

§8.431. When interposition arises: in cases of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted by the said compact   537

§8.432 Where resort can be had to no tribunal, superior to the authority of the parties, the parties themselves must be the rightful judges in the last resort, whether the bargain made has been pursued or violated   537

§8.433 For interposition to be proper, the breach of the compact must be willful and material  538

§8.434 The meanings of ‘dangerous’, ‘palpable’, and ‘deliberate’ usurpations  538

§8.435 The object of the interposition must be solely that of arresting the evil of the usurpation   539

§8.436 Federal judicial authority is not the sole or final authority on the question of usurpation; the states as parties to the compact are  540

§8.437 The federal judiciary’s decisions are the last resort only in relation to the departments of the federal government   541

§8.438 The authority of constitutions over governments, and of the sovereignty of the people over constitutions, are truths which are at all times necessary to be kept in mind   541

Section 9: Powers Denied to States  545

§9.1 Prohibition against treaties, alliances, and confederations  546

§9.2 Prohibition against states granting letters of marque and reprisal  547

§9.3 Ban on coining   548

§9.4 Prohibition on bills of credit   549

§9.5 Ban on making anything but gold and silver legal tender   561

§9.5 Ban on bills of attainder, ex post facto laws, and laws impairing contracts?  563

§9.6 Ban on titles of nobility  564

§9.7 Ban on imposts or duties on imports, exports, and tonnage  564

§9.8 Other powers denied to states: powers exclusively federal  565

§9.9 Other powers denied to states: 14th Amendment and some other amendments  569

§9.10 Limits on state judicial powers  569

Section 10: Separation of Federal Powers: Necessary for the Preservation of Liberty  570

§10.1 Constitution doesn’t explicitly provide for separation of powers  570

§10.2 The importance of a separation of powers  570

§10.3 A complete separation of powers is not possible in good government   572

§10.4 Why separation is critical  573

§10.5 In representative government, the great danger to separation is from the legislative branch   574

§10.6 Separation of powers applies also to separation of federal and state functions  576

§10.7 Separation of powers is a structural principle of the Constitution   578

§10.8 The non-delegability of legislative (and other) powers  579

Bibliograpy  579

Useful internet links  583

Index  584

Endnotes  613


Table of Contents for Volume 3


Preface  14

Précis for Volume 1   21

Précis for Volume 2   22

Précis for Volume 3   23

Précis for Volume 4-End   26

Declaration of Independence  31

Constitution of the United States  37

Table of powers of congress  63

Notes to table  64

Table of restraints on federal legislation   66

Table of federal executive powers  68

Table of federal judicial powers  69

Notes to table  70

Summary of conclusions on federal judicial power  73

Section 11. The General Welfare Clause: Mutation of Restraint into Power  80

§11.1 Review    81

§11.2 The General Welfare clause: Most abused of all in the Constitution   87

§11.3 United States v. Butler: Supreme court changes our form of government  89

§11.4 Why Butler and subsequent rulings were wrong  92

§11.5 Alger Hiss and the Butler case  97

§11.6 General Welfare and Common Defence are words of limitation   98

§11.7 The Uniformity Clause: All duties, imposts, and excises must be uniform throughout the United States  101

§11.71 Consumption Taxes  101

§11.72 Direct Taxes  105

§11.8 The uniformity clause scuttled   106

Section 12: Federal Commerce Power: Leviathan’s Dragnet  109

§12.1 Commerce power: Introduction   111

§12.11 Review    113

§12.111 Commerce = Trade  114

§12.1111 Foreign trade  117

§12.1112 Domestic trade  120

§12.1113 Trade with tribes  121

§12.2 How the commerce power has been tortured   124

§12.3 The real meaning of ‘commerce’: ‘commerce’ is trade which is the sale and purchase of merchandise  132

§12.4 The purpose of the interstate commerce clause: to prevent a multiplicity of taxes on goods shipped from one state to another  137

§12.5 Gibbons, Blackbird Creek, and the ‘dormant’ commerce power; Cooley and the doctrine of ‘selective exclusiveness’ 144

§12.6 Is the federal interstate commerce power exclusive or may the states also regulate interstate commerce  152

§12.7 Commerce-related powers denied states—No export or import duties except as necessary for inspection   153

§12.71 The meanings of the terms, ‘imposts’, ‘duties’, ‘imports’ and ‘exports’ 154

§12.72 State inspection fees allowed   155

§12.8 States may nonetheless impose excise taxes (sales and use taxes) on goods imported from another state  155

§12.9 U.S. Government and states prohibited from any export tax on articles exported from one state to another or to a foreign nation   157

§12.10 Do states have power to prohibit interstate commerce within their borders?  158

§12.11 Congress has no power to prohibit interstate commerce  159

§12.12 Summary of Coroner’s findings and conclusions  165

Section 13: ‘Necessary and Proper’: ‘Any Expedient Will Do’ 167

§13.1 Review    169

§13.12 How to determine the legitimacy of claimed federal power  169

§13.121 Is the power listed   170

§13.122 Is the law implementing the power necessary  170

§13.123 Is the law proper  170

§13.13 Fears over the scope of the necessary and proper power  171

§13.14 How the power works  173

§13.15 The power grants the power to enact the means by which an express power is carried out  173

§13.16 The necessary and proper power—a tautology with a purpose  174

§13.17 Why the form of the clause? Best of all alternatives  175

§13.18 The meaning of ‘necessary’; the meaning of ‘proper’ 180

§13.2 On the unconstitutionality of the National Bank—Mr. Madison   184

§13.3 On the constitutionality of the National Bank—the debate between Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Hamilton   191

§13.31 Summary of Mr. Jefferson’s arguments and Mr. Hamilton’s replies  192

§13.4 Judge Tucker’s essay on the clause  200

§13.5 McCulloch v. Maryland gives sweeping effect to the clause  205

§13.6 President Andrew Jackson on McCulloch and on the clause  217

§13.7 The Story-Taylor debate on the scope of the ‘necessary and proper’ clause  236

§13.8 The Louisiana Purchase question   279

§13.9 The constitutionality of embargoes  289

§13.10 Other cases in which the necessary and proper clause was invoked   292

§13.101 In general 292

§13.102 Definition of punishment and crimes  294

§13.103 Chartering of banks  297

§13.104 Currency regulations  299

§13.1041 Prohibitive taxes on notes of state banks are unconstitutional 299

§13.105 The U.S. issuance of paper money is unconstitutional 300

§13.1051 The Legal Tender (Paper Money) Cases are unconstitutional 303

§13.1052 Legal tender cases: the background and the decisions  304

§13.1053 Mr. J. Field dissects the paper money decision   307

§13.10531 Field on the misuse of congressional power to declare war and borrow money  307

§13.10532 Field on the power to coin money  308

§13.10533 Field on federal laws which impair contracts  308

§13.10534 Field on C J Marshall’s view of paper money  309

§13.10535 Field’s parting shot  310

§13.106 The gold clause cases are unconstitutional 310

§13.1061 History of the Gold Clause Legislation   314

§13.107 Power to charter corporations  317

§13.108 Courts and judicial proceedings  317

§13.109 Special acts concerning claims  321

§13.110 Maritime law    323

Part 2.2: President: from Law Enforcer to Lawgiver, Judge, and Soldier of Fortune (In two sections: 14-15)  324

Section 14 Delegation Run Riot: Exorcism of Separation of Powers and Ordination of Presidential Lawmaking  325

§14.1 Review—Separation of powers in general 326

§14.11 Constitution doesn’t explicitly provide for separation of powers  326

§14.12 The importance of a separation of powers  326

§14.13 A complete separation of powers is not possible in good government  327

§14.14 Why separation is critical 328

§14.15 In representative government, the great danger to separation is from the legislative branch   328

§14.16 Separation of powers applies also to separation of federal and state functions  329

§14.17 Separation of powers is a structural principle of the Constitution   331

§14.18 The non-delegability of legislative (and other) powers  332

§14.2 Background of separation of powers  332

§14.3 Separation in relation to executive powers  334

§14.32 Separation of powers: The rule as it applies to executive power  336

§14.321 How the court invested the president with fictitious plenary power where, as with congress, his only real powers are those enumerated   336

§14.3211 Cases ruling the president has inherent foreign affairs powers  336

§14.3212 Cases upholding executive agreements  337

§14.3213 Case upholding presidential authority to terminate treaties unilaterally  343

§14.3214 Cases upholding presidential powers to set tariffs  344

§14.3215 Cases on grants of legislative power to executive branch agencies  347

§14.3216 Cases on appointments and removals of executive personnel 352

§14.3217 Cases on independent counsel 365

Section 15: ‘Rambo’ Power Rampant  367

§15.1 Review    369

§15.11 War, reprisals, and captures powers  369

§15.12 Commander-in-chief power  370

§15.121 The need for a single hand in the direction of war  370

§15.122 The commander-in-chief power is not a power to declare war  371

§15.123 The commander-in-chief power is itself subject to congressional regulation   372

§15.21 Declared wars  375

§15.22 Undeclared wars  375

§15.221 Any armed hostilities are, by definition, war  375

§15.222 Congress has not the power to ratify, retroactively, the president’s initiation of any armed hostilites  377

§15.223 The Prize Cases: The supreme court hands Lincoln a blank check to start a war  377

§15.224 20th Century undeclared wars  380

§15.225 The ‘Declarations’ in the two gulf wars were invalid, because they gave the president unbridled discretion in deciding whether to go to war  381

§15.2251 The second Gulf War  381

§15.2252 The first Gulf War  383

§15.2253 The Gulf wars were also unconstitutional because based on the unconstitutional ‘War Powers Act’ 384

§15.23 Truman’s Korean Wartime seizure of American steel mills held a violation of separation of powers doctrine  390

§15.3 Summary  395

Part 2.3: Federal Courts: from “Least Dangerous” Branch to Archonocracy  397

Section 16: The 14th Amendment Amended: Voodoo Jurisdiction   398

§16.1 14th Amendment ‘interpretation’: The Janus-faced judiciary  401

§16.11 Judicial retreat, passivism, and dereliction   401

§16.12 Application of the 14th: The court switches from comatose to hyper  402

§16.2 Review    409

§16.3 The elements of the 14th   410

§16.31 State action requirement  410

§16.32 Citizenship clause—To prohibit discrimination in state citizenship rules  411

§16.33 The privileges or immunities clauses—To prohibit discrimination in state law    411

§16.331 The Article 4 privileges clause: Predecessor to the Amendment 14 privileges Clause  412

§16.332 Definition of privileges and immunities  412

§16.3321 Corfield v. Coryell (1823)  414

§16.333 The ambiguity of the Articles of Confederation privileges and immunities clause led to the enactment of the Article 4 clause  419

§16.334 The purpose of the 14th’s privileges and immunities clause—No state discrimination against the state’s citizens in state legislation and other state law    422

§16.335 Slaughterhouse Cases—Nullifying the privileges or immunities clause  424

§16.336 A survey of supreme court decisions on privileges and immunities  430

§16.3361 Survey of Article 4 privilege cases  430

§16.3362 Survey of 14th Amendment privileges cases  435

§16.33621 Colgate, Madden, Edwards, and Saenz  437

§16.34 Due process clause—No discrimination in judicial proceedings  440

§16.341 Reading the due process clause, as the court has, turns the bill of rights into an absurdity  448

§16.3411 The Bill of Rights: Reconstructed by the supreme court’s incorporation doctrine  450

§16.3412 A survey of supreme court decisions on due process  454

§16.34121 Procedural due process  454

§16.34122 ‘Substantive’ due process—A myth   458

§16.341221 Munn v. Illinois: Beginnings of the illegitimate doctrine of private ‘property affected with a public interest’ 461

§16.341222 Allgeyer v. Louisiana: Substantive due process commands a majority  469

§16.341223 Lochner v. New York: Freedom of contract enshrined for a while  472

§16.341224 The Lochner dissents: Denying liberty of contract  476

§16.341225 Other cases striking down economic legislation   478

§16.341226 The end of liberty of contract: Nebbia and West Coast Hotel 481

§16.341227 The deferential approach to state legislation abandoned in voting rights and other non-economic cases: substantive due process reborn   484

§16.341228 Voting rights cases  484

§16.3412281 Minor v. Happersett: Women and the ‘right’ to vote  484

§16.3412282 The voting rights amendments and the abandonment of no right of suffrage doctrine  486

§16.3412283 The reapportionment cases  486

§16.34122831 Reynolds v. Sims  487

§16.3412284 Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections  488

§16.3412285 Bush v. Gore  489

§16.342 A new kind of substantive due process formed: privacy and abortion   489

§16.343 A good word (mostly) for ‘Laissez-Faire Constitutionalism’ 490

§16.3431 Pollock: The income tax unconstitutional 494

§16.3432 Plessy: the ‘legal’ segregation case  496

§16.3433 In Re Debs and Loewe v. Lawlor: Labor injunction cases  499

§16.35 Equal protection clause—to prohibit discrimination in law enforcement and administration   513

§16.351 A survey of supreme court decisions on equal protection   516

§16.352 The invented doctrines of ‘strict scrutiny’, ‘intermediate scrutiny’, and ‘rational basis scrutiny’ 526

§16.4 Summary of 14th Amendment Powers  531

Section 17: R.I.P. Federalism    534

§17.1 Federalism officially declared dead: Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitian Transit Authority  540

§17.2 The precedents leading to federalism’s death   541

§17.21 The 10th Amendment scrapped as a mere truism: United States v. Darby  541

§17.22 The Warren Court’s complicity in the crime: building an edifice of anti-federalism    543

§17.221 The Reapportionment Cases: First blow    543

§17.222 The religion cases: Judicial verbicide  544

§17.2221 Engel v. Vitale: School prayer banned   545

§17.2222 Jefferson’s ‘wall of separation’ examined: Law by metaphor  546

§17.2223 The illicit use of the 14th Amendment Clause to prohibit school prayer  548

§17.2224 Blaine Amendment prohibiting state religious establishments rejected   548

17.2225 Jefferson’s support of religion in schools  549

§17.2226 The court’s religion decisions: a collective ‘mess’ 550

§17.223 The supreme court’s takeover of state governments  551

§17.2231 True Federalism: Barron v. Baltimore: Bill of Rights binding only on federal government  551

§17.2232 The incorporation debacle: Barron v. Baltimore and federalism trashed piecemeal 552

§17.2233 Supreme takeover of state criminal procedure  555

§17.22331 Miranda v. Arizona & Mapp v. Ohio   556

§17.2234 The abortion cases: Abortion on demand—A new constitutional right to murder  557

§17.2235 Pornography held freedom of speech   558

§17.2236 Flag-burning held freedom of speech: Texas v. Johnson   559

§17.22361 Mr. J. Rehnquist’s elegant dissent in Texas v. Johnson   562

§17.3 Early history of federalism    565

§17.31 United States v. Hudson & Goodwin: No federal common law crimes  565

§17.32 Federal court adherence to state court precedents common law precedents: Elmendorf v. Taylor  566

§17.33 Lip service to federalism: Cohens v. Virginia   567

§17.34 More lip service to federalism: Gibbons v. Ogden and Willson v. Blackbird Creek   569

§17.35 True federalism upheld: Barron v. Baltimore  570

§17.36 The supremacy clause: not a source of federal power  571

§17.37 Contracts clause: A restraint on states and also not a matter of federalism    572

§17.38 Federalism and the mayhem of McCulloch v. Maryland   572

§17.39 Commerce clause: When properly implemented by congress is not a matter of federalism    574

§17.391 People are not commerce: New York v. Miln   575

§17.392 The Passenger Cases: No commerce involved   576

§17.310 Federalism and the Fugitive Slave Act  576

§17.3101 Ableman v. Booth: Wisconsin Supreme Court rightly defies U.S. Supreme Court  577

§17.311 Tarble’s case: Another blow to federalism    580

§17.312 ‘Nationalism’ overtakes federalism in admiralty cases  581

§17.313 The invented doctrine of federal common law: Swift v. Tyson   582

§17.314 Federalism revived in part: Swift overruled: Erie RR v. Tomkins  584

§17.4 Federalism: Post Civil War drift  584

§17.41 Pensacola Telegraph Co. v. Western Union: Federalism fares badly  584

§17.42 Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois: State railroad regulation held constitutional 585

§17.43 Pure Food and Drug Act: Unconstitutional federal intervention   588

§17.5 The New Deal: Beginning of the end of federalism    589

§17.51 Warning signals that the court was wavering on the New Deal 589

§17.512 Nebbia v. New York and Home Building and Loan Association v. Blaisdell 590

§17.52 Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States: Federalism’s last gasp   590

§17.53 United States v. Butler: End of limited government  591

§17.54 The ‘constitutional revolution’ of the New Deal 594

§17.55 The welfare state born   595

§17.56 The non-existent presumption of constitutionality of congressional legislation   598

§17.6 The Warren Court Era   599

§17.61 The 14th Amendment and Brown v. Board of Education   599

§17.62 Reapportionment Cases: Restructuring the Constitution with game theory  600

§17.63 The end of the 14th Amendment’s state action requirement  601

§17.64 Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S.: Ugly uses of the commerce clause  602

§17.65 Katzenbach v. McClung: Ollie’s Barbeque—into the pit of intergalactic commerce  603

§17.7 The Burger Court: Little Sir Echo of the Warren Court  605

§17.71 Roe v. Wade: The Burger Court’s legacy of infanticide  606

§17.72 Supreme court’s 60 year crusade against federalism    606

§17.8 The Rehnquist Court and the ‘Federalism Revival’ 607

§17.81 Printz v. United States: Most principled decision in modern times  610

§17.82 State Sovereign Immunity for certain suits against it in federal court: The Rehnquist Court falls into a crevice  611

§17.821 Chisholm v. Georgia: How sovereign immunity came to be  613

§17.822 Cohens v. Virginia: Denied state sovereign immunity and upheld federal court intervention in state criminal cases  614

§17.823 Sovereign immunity abrogated in New Hampshire v. Louisiana and New York v. Louisiana   617

§17.824 Establishing ‘general’ sovereign immunity: Hans v. Louisiana   619

§17.825 Sovereign immunity denied: Ex Parte Young  620

§17.826 Warren court upholds congressional legislation denying state sovereign immunity  621

§17.83 The Rehnquist Court expands the constitution’s original sovereign immunity  622

§17.831 Seminole Tribe of Florida v. Florida: Rebirth of state sovereign immunity  623

§17.832 Alden v. Maine: An unwarranted expansion of state sovereign immunity  624

§17.84 Rehnquist Court limits federal commerce power  625

§17.841 United States v. Lopez: Court holds no commerce involved   626

§17.842 United States v. Morrison: Court again holds no commerce involved   627

§17.85 Employment Division v. Smith: States may prohibit religion-related drug use  629

§17.86 Boerne v. Flores: Court rightly limits congress’s authority to enforce constitutional rights under the 14th Amendment  630

§17.87 The Rehnquist Court misfires on the general welfare clause  633

§17.88 Romer v. Evans: Law forbidding preference to homosexuals held unconstitutional 634

§17.89 Lawrence v. Texas: Sodomy legalized   636

§17.810 Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs: Court upholds Family Leave Act  638

§17.811 Buckley v. American Constitutional Law Foundation: On limiting state referendum process to residents  638

§17.812 Saenz v. Roe: California’s attempt to limit welfare to long term residents only  639

Bibliograpy  640

Useful internet links  647

Index  648


Table of Contents for Volume 4


Preface. 7

Précis. 14

Declaration of Independence. 25

Constitution. 30

Table of Powers of Congress. 59

Notes to Table. 60

Table of Restraints on Federal Legislation. 64

Table of Federal Executive Powers. 67

Table of Federal Judicial Powers. 68

Notes to Table. 69

Summary of Conclusions on Federal Judicial Power. 72

Section 18: Death of Contract. 80

§18.1 The Early Years: The Court Defends the Contracts Clause against Attacks  80

§18.2 Fletcher v. Peck: The Court Sustains Public Land Grants as Unimpairable Contracts  84

§18.3 Sturges v. Crowninshield: Another Victory for the Contracts Clause  87

§18.4 Dartmouth College v. Woodward: ‘A small college, and yet there are those who love it’ 90

§18.5 The Wall Protecting Contracts Breeched: Ogden v. Saunders  93

§18.6 Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge. 96

§18.7 West River Bridge Co. v. Dix: The Contracts Clause Disemboweled  101

§18.8 Nails in the Coffin: Home Building & Loan Association v. Blaisdell  108

§18.9 Marriage Contracts and the Contracts Clause. 117

Section 19: Full Faith and Credit. 121

§19.1 Full Faith and Credit Defined. 122

§19.2 Public Acts Defined. 122

§19.3 Records Defined. 122

§19.4 Judicial Proceedings Defined. 123

§19.5 Manner of Proof Defined for Acts, Records, and Judicial Proceedings  123

§19.6 Effect Defined. 124

§19.61 The Binding Effect of One State’s Judgments in Another State  125

§19.62 Effect of One State’s Laws in Another State. 126

§19.63 The Absurd Consequences of the 1948 Revision. 129

§19.631 Absurd Results in Divorce Cases. 129

§19.632 Absurd Results in Recognition of ‘Marriage’ Cases  131

Section 20: The 9th Amendment: Only an ‘Inkblot’?. 135

§20.1 Review.. 135

§20.11 How the 9th Amendment Came to be. 135

§20.12 Some Incorrect Views on the Meaning of the 9th. 137

§20.2 Professor Barnett’s Presumption of Liberty. 139

§20. 3 Review—A partial List of 9th Amendment Rights. 149

Section 21: Roe and “Progeny”. 153

§21.1 Hippocratic Oath. 154

§21.2 Pope Condemns Abortion in 1588.. 155

§21.3 Brief History of Abortion in America. 156

§21.4 The Court Lays a False ‘Foundation’ for Legal Abortion  157

§21.5 The Ignominious Roe v. Wade. 157

§21.6 Roe Reaffirmed. 160

§21.7 Abortion ‘Rights’ Extended to Live Births. 161

§21.8 The Case Against Abortions. 163

§21.81 The Biological Case Against Abortions. 164

§21.82 The Legal Case. 176

§21.821 The Constitution Itself Prohibits Abortion. 177

§21.8211 5th, 9th, & 14th Amendments and the Prohibition Against Bills of Attainder Prohibit Abortion. 177

§21.82111 Pertinent Federal Constitutional Provisions. 177

§21. 821111 State Locale Cases. 178

—The Bill of Attainder Case Against State Locale Abortions  179

—The Equal Protection Case Against State Locale Abortions  179

—The Due Process Case Against State Locale Abortions. 180

§21. 821112 Federal Locale Cases. 181

—The Bill of Attainder Case Against Federal Locale Abortions  181

—The 9th Amendment Case Against Federal Locale Abortions  183

—The 5th Amendment Due Process Case Against Federal Locale Abortions  183

Section 22: Other Jurisdictional Usurpations by the Court for Itself  185

§22.1 Mr. Jefferson’s Charge of Supreme Court Usurpation  187

§22.2 Federal Judicial Powers—Review.. 187

§22.3 A List of Principles Governing Federal Judicial Power  197

§22.4 Supreme Court Cases Usurping State Power—Review   200

§22.41 The Supreme Court’s Claimed Veto Power Over State Legislation and Other State Activities  200

§22.42 The Incorporation Cases: Supreme Court’s Further Usurpation of State Powers  204

§22.5 Martin v. Hunter and Cohens v. Virginia: Coup d’état of Federal Judicial Power  207

§22.6 Cooper v. Aaron—Court Decrees Supersede the Constitution Itself  213

§22.7 Judicial Immunity: Ultimate Shelter for Judicial Usurpation and Other Error  216

Section 23: Ashcroft Hearings: ‘Pyrrhus Testifies’ 218

Section 24: Field Test № 1: The Government and Major League Baseball vs. the Taxpayers—Into the Judicial Bull-Pen. 280

Section 25. Field Test № 2: Joan of Arc vs. IRS —Of Hamster Nostrils, Hexing Studies, and the Government’s Official Renunciation of The Federalist. 342

Section 26. Field Test №3. Anatomy of a Judicial Murder: Of Beanbags, Unnatural Acts With Sheep, and a Judicial Pardon for a Governor. 390

Section 27: Ex-Cathedra: Perpetuity of Infallible Error. 417

Section 28. Two Constitutions: The Court’s vs. the Founders’ 425

Section 29. Judici Officium Suum Excedenti Non Paretur. Constitutional Convention Anyone?  433

Summary of Cases Cited in the Treatise. 452

Bibliograpy. 500

Useful Internet Links. 503

Index. 506


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